This can either relate to giving a plant extra nutrient by providing it with organic material (I bought some Good Grow liquid the other day so I can fertilise my carrots) or relates to the process of fertilisation which is part of sexual reproduction.
Adding nutrients to the soil to promote growth and healthy plants - fertiliser, either artificial or natural substance that adds nutrients to the soil. Also the act of introducing pollen to produce seed.
provide with fertilizers or add nutrients to; "We should fertilize soil if we want to grow healthy plants"
introduce semen into (a female)
The application of essential plant nutrients to a grassed area. Typical application rates range from 17 - 50 g/m2.