a metaphor derived from surveying and navigation to indicate the convergence of two or more viewpoints on a single position or, in social research, truth. Triangulation expercise migh, for example, involve seeing whether the results of a questionnaire are repeated in observational data. Associated with a realist approach and, largely, with early qualitative discussions of validity, triangulation is treated with scepticism by non-realists who reject the view that revelation of a single truth is the object of a research account.
In practical terms this often means that in the course of research we triangulate, that is we make use of a variety of different research strategies and methods (so we might use a survey as well as in-depth interviews).
is a research technique that involves using more than one source of criminological data to assess the validity of what is being observed.
A method of field area measurement by dividing the whole field into triangular parts whose dimensions are separately measure.
In symbolic interactionist research, the use of various scientific methodologies to focus on a research topic in order to provide accuracy.
To check and re-check with at least 3 different sources to ensure integrity of research.
The use of a combination of research methods in a study. An example of triangulation would be a study that incorporated surveys, interviews, and observations. See also multi-modal methods
Use of a variety of sources, methods or field team members to cross check and validate data and information to limit biases.
The use of three or more different research methods in combination to study the same phenomena, (eg observational studies, in-depth interviews and focus groups). Triangulation is used mainly as a check of validity.
The use of multiple sources and methods to gather similar information.
A research design that includes two or more approaches to data collection or analysis
The combinations and comparisons of multiple data sources, data collection and analysis procedures , research methods, or inferences that occur at the end of a study., Denzin (1978) used the terms data triangulation, theory triangulation and methodological triangulation. Erzberger and Udo have used the term to refer to agreement between inferences. See Rules of Integration. Back to the top
triangulation refers to using more than one method to look at the same thing and seeing whether the results are consistent. For example, having interviewed people about the way in which they do something, you could subsequently observe them. Consistency in results increases confidence in the research findings, however, sometimes disparities can be equally interesting and revealing.
A process of using multiple data sources, data collection methods, and/or theories to validate research findings, help eliminate bias, and detect errors or anomalies in discoveries.
In the social sciences, triangulation is often used to indicate that more than one method is used in a study with a view to double (or triple) checking results. This is also called "cross examination". The idea is that one can be more confident with a result if different methods lead to the same result.