A severe type of anemia that can affect a fetus or baby.
Abnormal breakup of red blood cells in the fetus or newborn. This is usually due to antibodies made by the mother directed against the baby's red cells. It is typically caused by Rh incompatibility, that is differences between the Rh blood group of the mother and baby. Severe hemolytic disease can cause anemia and heart failure. Less-severe cases include jaundice, and can lead to brain damage is left untreated. Also known as erythroblastosis.
Also called Rh disease or erythroblastosis, hemolytic disease results when a woman who is Rh-negative (meaning she does not carry the Rh protein in her blood) has a fetus who is Rh-positive and her immune system makes antibodies against the fetus's blood. The disorder is treated with a compound that prevents the woman's immune system from making antibodies.
Prior to 1940 the occurrence of severe neonatal jaundice, without known cause, in succeeding infants born to the same woman, was a relatively uncommon disease, though very well known, icterus gravis familiaris, now universally known as HDN. The most cause of HDN is maternal alloimmunization, possibly ABO incompatibility, but most cases documented cases of clinically severe HDN have been associated with Rh(D) incompatibility. HDN may occur when an Rh negative woman is carrying a fetus with an Rh positive genotype. A feto-maternal bleed resulting in fetal red cells entering the mother's circulation may cause Rh immunization. Rh HDN does not occur during the first pregnancy, but may occur in subsequent pregnancies.
a condition that occurs when there is an incompatibility between the blood types of the mother and baby, causing breaking down of red blood cells.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as HDN, is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus, when the Ig G antibodies that have been produced by the mother and have passed through the placenta include ones which attack the red blood cells in the fetal circulation. The red cells are broken down and the fetus can develop reticulocytosis and anemia. This fetal disease ranges from mild to very severe, and fetal death from heart failure (hydrops fetalis) can occur.
In ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as ABO HDN) maternal Ig G antibodies with specificity for the ABO blood group system pass through the placenta to the fetal circulation where they can cause hemolysis of fetal red blood cells which can lead to fetal anemia and HDN. In contrast to Rh disease, about half of the cases of ABO HDN occur in a firstborn baby and ABO HDN does not become more severe after further pregnancies.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-Kell1) is the second most common cause of severe hemolytic diseases of newborns (HDN) after Rh disease. Anti-Kell1 is becoming relatively more important as prevention of Rh disease is becoming more and more effective.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-Rhc) can range from a mild to a severe disease. It is the third most common cause of severe HDN. Rh disease is the commonest and hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-Kell) is the second most common cause of severe HDN.