A process for causing animals to behave in a specific manner by rewarding or punishing the animal each time it performs a certain act; after a time, the animal comes to associate the reward or punishment with the act, and will increase or decrease the frequency of performing that act.
"Trial and error" learning, usually involving a reward.
Form of learning in which a person tends to repeat a behavior that has been reinforced or to cease a behavior that has been punished. (27, 120)
(op´e-rant) Learning in which the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the probability of its occurrence.
A learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future. go to glossary index
the psychological theory the learnign can be programmed by whatever consequence follows a particular behaviour
a form of conditioning in which the desired response, when it occurs, is reinforced by a stimulus.
The acquisition or elimination of a response as a function of the environmental contingencies of reward and punishment.
A category of behavioral learning theory that involves the use of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to change behavior. It is based on the premise that if an act is followed by a satisfying change in the environment, the likelihood that the act will be repeated in similar situations is reinforced or increased.
See instrumental conditioning.
A type of associative learning that directly affects behavior in a natural context; also called trial-and-error learning.
Behavior changes after the results of an action proved of consequence (e.g. rewarding, noxious), (same as trial-and-error learning, instrumental conditioning), compare with Classical Conditioning
(Reber) A type of conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control. The operation through which such conditioning occurs is the presentation of reinforcement contingent upon the organism’s emitting the response.
conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response
A kind of conditioning in which the response itself is operational in bringing about reinforcement.
reinforcing certain behaviors to produce the desired pattern of responses; goal-directed behavior.
Trial-and-error learning, in which an animal voluntarily repeats any behavior that brings success. 816
the arrangement of environmental contingencies i.e. what follows a response to strengthen or weaken the connection between a stimulus and a response. This framework for understanding how we learn has been extremely influential from the 1950s onwards. Its impact can be seen nowadays in ‘programmed instruction', where there is a very tight specification of stimulus and response and a clear connection between responses and reward. It is also visible in the ‘competence revolution' which specifies job demands in clear behavioural terms. Critics argue that it fails to take any account of the ‘black box' what is happening in someone's mind when they are learning.
The process of changing behaviour by manipulating its consequences.
A learning theory that views the probability of a behavior as being dependent on the outcomes or consequences associated with it.
A type of learning in which behavior is determined by its consequences. (A behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement [positive or negative] and diminished if followed by punishment). The animal "operates" on the environment, leading to a desired outcome.
A type of learning in which behavior is determined by its consequences. A positive consequence to a behavior will increase the likelihood of the behavior being repeated, while an undesirable consequence will decrease the likelihood of the behavior being repeated.
B. F. Skinner's term for instrumental conditioning, a form of learning in which a behavior becomes more or less probable, depending on its consequences. (246)
A type of learning in which behaviors are influenced primarily by the consequences that follow them (Kazdin, 2001)
The strengthening of an operant response by presenting a reinforcing stimulus if, and only if, the response occurs (syn. instrumental conditioning, reward learning). See also classical conditioning.
(so named by psychologist B. F. Skinner) The modification of behavior brought about over time by the consequences of said behavior. Operant conditioning is distinguished from Pavlovian conditioning in that operant conditioning deals with voluntary behavior explained by its consequences, while Pavlovian conditioning deals with involuntary behavior triggered by its antecedents. Participants on a ropes course.
An unconscious form of learning in which a behavior is linked to a specific stimulus through a process of reinforcement.
The view that behavior is a function of the reinforcements and punishments received in the past.
Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. Operant conditioning is distinguished from Pavlovian conditioning in that operant conditioning deals with the modification of voluntary behavior through the use of consequences, while Pavlovian conditioning deals with the conditioning of behavior so that it occurs under new antecedent conditionsThe Principles of Learning and Behavior, Fifth Edition, Ed. Michael Domjan.