a shot which results in a penalty, such as dropping the cue ball in a pocket without hitting another ball.
To request a hit.
To either force a Cue Ball or an Elephant off the table. In case of Elephant Scratch, the Scratcher places the Elephant anywhere on the table. Points are awarded.
a loss of turn (end of inning), and any balls pocketed on that shot do not count (they stay pocketed)
A foul which usually occurs when the cue ball is pocketed.
Pocketing of the cue ball or driving the cue ball off the playing surface and onto the floor.
Any time the cue ball is hit into the pocket a scratch is called. Most standard rule sets allow the opposing player or team to place the cue ball anywhere in the kitchen for a free shot. Other game types allow "ball-in-hand" after a scratch.
Cue ball accidentally goes into a pocket.