A servant or slave employed in husbandry, and in some countries attached to the soil and transferred with it, as formerly in Russia.
A semi-free peasant who works his lord's demesne and pays him certain dues in return for the use of land, the possession (not ownership) of which is heritable. These dues, usually called corvÃ©e, are almost in the form of labor on the lord's land. Generally this averages to three days a week. Generally subdivided into classes called: cottagers, small holders, or villeins although the later originally meant a free peasant who was burdened with additional rents and services. (MEDIEV-L. Medieval Terms) Slave; property of the lord. (Wood, Michael. Domesday: A Search for the Roots of England, 214) Peasant burdened with week-work, merchet, tallage, and other obligations; bondman, villein. (Gies, Frances and Joseph. Life in a Medieval Village, 245)
A semi-free peasant (cottagers, small holders, or villeins) who worked his lord's demesne and paid him certain dues in return for the use of land, the possession (not ownership) of which was heritable. These dues ("corvee"), were in the form of labor on the lord's land, averaging three days a week.
Semi-free peasant who worked his lord's demesne and paid him certain dues in return for the use of land, the possession (not ownership) of which was heritable. These dues, usually called corvee, were usually in the form of labour on the lord's land. Generally this averaged three days a week. Serfs were generally classified as: 'Cottagers', 'small-holders', or 'villeins' although the later originally meant free peasants who were burdened with additional rents and services.
(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
a laborer who is bound to the land, and form the lowest social class of the feudal society
a person bound to his master's land and transferred with it to a new owner.
A peasant. Essentially a slave in medieval times.
Shadow exchange rate factor. The ratio of the economic price of foreign currency to its market price. Alternatively, the ratio of the shadow to the official exchange rate. This factor will generally be greater than 1. For economic analysis using the domestic price numeraire, the SERF is applied to all outputs and inputs, including labor and land, that have been valued at border price equivalent values, with project effects measured at domestic market price values left unadjusted. The inverse of the Standard conversion factor.
An slave who works a determined land for his or her lord.
A peasant bound to perform feudal obligations for a lord. In 1959, about 60 percent of Tibet's population were legally classified as serfs. (In Tibetan, serfs are known as _miser_ or "yellow people").[Grunfeld1
The class of semi-free peasants that resulted from the mingling of slaves and free peasants in the Middle Ages. Considered the property of a lord and bound to his lands, serfs had few legal rights but most courts upheld reasonable treatment and conditions for them.