A group of drugs used to treat infections caused by bacteria, e.g. penicillin
infection-fighting proteins that the body produces to destroy foreign microorganisms or toxins (antigens); also known as immunoglobulins.
Specialized proteins produced by cells of the immune system in response to the presence of foreign material (bacteria, viruses, toxins, etc.); antibodies are capable of binding to the foreign material and thus alerting other immune cells to its presence.
a protein (type of chemical) produced in the blood that fights diseases by attacking and killing harmful bacteria
Proteins produced by the immune system to fight infectious agents, such as viruses
Blood proteins that are produced by white blood cells when the body recognises that something foreign (unfamiliar) has got in, for example infecting bacteria. The antibodies attach themselves to the invading bacteria or viruses which are then destroyed.
Proteins produced by B-lymphocytes that normally serve to recognize and bind to foreign substances that enter the body like infections and environmental chemicals. Antibodies are the foot soldiers of the body's immune system which is designed to protect itself from foreign invasion.
Proteins that the body makes to protect itself from foreign substances. In diabetes, the body sometimes makes antibodies to work against pork or beef insulins because they are not exactly the same as human insulin or because they have impurities. The antibodies can keep the insulin from working well and may even cause the person with diabetes to have an allergic or bad reaction to the beef or pork insulins.
a proteins, produced as a result of the introduction of an antigen, that has the ability to combine with the antigen that caused its production (Morris 1992).
An infection-fighting protein molecule in blood or secretory fluids that tags, neutralizes, and helps destroy pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, viruses) or toxins. Antibodies, known generally as immunoglobulins, are made and secreted by B-lymphocytes in response to stimulation by antigens. Each specific antibody binds only to the specific antigen that stimulated its production.
proteins made by certain white blood cells in response to a foreign substance (antigen). Antibodies neutralize or destroy antigens.
Also known as "immune bodies", antibodies are substances produced by the body to fight bacteria and viruses. For reasons that are not well understood, the body sometimes produces antibodies that attack it's own tissues and organs.
Protein molecules that attach themselves to foreign agents and mark them for destruction. go to glossary index
several sizes of structurally similar protein molecules which are able to bind to specific proteins or other substances; forming a main line of defense in animals against foreign items.
Substances produced by the immune system that attack substances the immune system recognizes as foreign, and not part of the self. Antibodies attach to the foreign substance and alert the immune system to destroy it.
"Shock troope in the body defence mechanism, capable of destroying bacteria and other potentially harmful substances. They are manufactured in lymph tissue, such as of the spleen, in response to the presence of foreign substance in the body, such as allergen or a virus. Each antibody combats a particulat, infection; for example, a chicken pox or a cold virus. Once the body has an effective antibody it becomes immune to that disease. Antibodies are transported around the body inthe bloodstream.
Proteins that fight infections.
A protein immunoglobulin which is produced naturally by the body and is essential to the immune system by working to combat foreign bodies, germs or bacteria. They are produced by thelymphoid tissue and consist of different classes each of which is designed to fight specific antigens. They include agglutinins, bacteriolysins, opsonins and preciptin.
Proteins that the body produces to protect itself from foreign substances, such as bacteria or viruses.
Molecules in the blood or secretory fluids that tag, destroy, or neutralize bacteria, viruses, or other harmful toxins (see antigen). They are members of a class of proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are produced and secreted by B lymphocytes in response to stimulation by antigens. An antibody is specific to an antigen.
A protein substance developed in response to antigens. This reaction forms the basis of immunity. All antibodies belong to a special group of serum proteins, the immunoglobulins.
defensive molecules produced by plasma cells in response to foreign antigens. They bind to and make harmless the antigens of the kind which activated the plasma cells, and coat the surface of microbes to prepare them for phagocytosis.
Proteins made by specialized cells after stimulation by a foreign substance (antigen). They are part of the response by the body (immune response) to try to destroy the foreign substance.
Antibodies are special proteins that are produced by plasma cells (B-Cells) in response to foreign antigens. Antibodies are part of the specific immune system.
Proteins made by a subgroup of white blood cells, the lymphocytes that are responsible for the body's defence. Antibodies are normally directed against foreign structures like pathogens or transfused cells. However, sometimes they may also be directed against structures and cells of their own body, e.g. in the case of anti-neutrophil antibodies where the antibodies recognise and destroy the patient's own neutrophils.
protein produced by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen. It defends the body against substances identified by the immune system as potentially harmful.
Specialized proteins produced by white blood cells that circulate in the blood. Antibodies seek and attach to foreign proteins, microorganisms or toxins in order to neutralize them. They are part of the immune system.
proteins synthesized by plasma cells that are released into the circulation to the antigen site and destroy the microorganisms by chemically reacting with them.
(also called immunoglobulins) Protein substances in the blood stream that are produced by the body in response to bacteria, viruses and other materials foreign to the body. Antibodies attach to the invaders causing them to be destroyed by other immune system cells. There are five specific types of antibodies. See immunoglobulins
Circulating plasma proteins that neutralize specific antigens - foreign proteins. Can be genetically defined, e.g. blood groups, or develop in response to infection, e.g. by viruses.
blood proteins which are formed in the body to respond to germs, viruses or any other substances which the body sees as foreign or dangerous. The job of antibodies is to attack these foreign substances and make them harmless.
Molecules in the blood that destroy bacteria, viruses and other harmful toxin.
protein molecules secreted by B-cells that binds to a specific antigen.
Protein produced by white blood cells which neutralize or destroy foreign proteins in the body (antigens). When infected with virus or bacteria, the body produces antibodies which destroy the invading microorganisms.
Proteins produced by an immune system cell in the body, capable of combining specifically with a substance foreign to the body such as an allergen or infectious agent.
Specialized proteins of animal immune systems that initiate the body's defense response.
a large number of proteins that are produced normally after stimulation by an antigen and act specifically against the antigen in an immune response.
Proteins produced by certain white blood cells in response to the presence of foreign substances (antigens). Each antibody can bind to only one specific antigen. The purpose of this binding is to help destroy that antigen.
A part of the immune system that "tags" or destroys viruses, bacteria, etc. An HIV antibody test is positive when antibodies that are specific to the virus are detected.
Proteins of the immune system that cling on to foreign substances to allow white blood cells to detect the intruders and destroy them. Bacteria ~ Single celled microorganisms, some of which can harm the body and cause disease. Most bacteria are harmless, some are beneficial or even essential.
Proteins that are made by B lymphocytes in response to foreign substances called antigens. For example, infectious agents like viruses or bacteria cause lymphocytes to make antibodies against them. In some case, the antibodies are protective and prevent a second infection. These antibodies can be used to identify specific cells and improve the classification of leukemia or lymphoma.
A class of proteins used by the immune system to mark antigens for later destruction. Every antibody type has a specific structure which lets it bind to a certain molecule appearing in an antigen's hull. They are produced by lymphocytes and plasma cells. B-lymphocytes, upon contact with antigen, mature into plasma cells that synthesize antibody. A detailed explanation of the human immune system can be found at http://gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch001a.htm.
molecules (also called immunoglobulins) produced by a B cell in response to an antigen. When an antibody attaches to an antigen, it destroys the antigen.
special proteins produced by our bodies in response to a disease-causing microbe.
Proteins normally produced by the body in response to infection or immunisation. Antibodies bind to pathogens, neutralising them or preparing them for destruction by other immune cells.
Proteins produced by plasma cells in response to a specific foreign organism. These proteins in the blood tag, destroy, or neutralize bacteria, viruses, or other harmful toxins.
immunoglobulins, part of the body’s plasma proteins, defend primarily against the extracellular phases of bacterial and viral infections
Products of white blood cells that are the body's defense against disease. Produced when the body is fighting any type of infection.
Substances produced by cells in response to stimullating agents such as viruses or bacteria, they are tailor made for a particular antigen. - Proteins produced by special cells in the immune system that attack germs, parasites, and other foreign substances in the body. - Complex glycoprotein produced in response to the presence of an antigen that has a destructive influence on the antigen which stimulated its formation, thus producing immunity.
Proteins that are produced by our immune system in order to protect our body from 'intruders' such as bacteria and viruses. Immunoglobulin E is the antibody involved in allergic reactions.
any of a large number of proteins of high molecular weight that are produced, as part of the immune response, in response to an antigen which it then neutralizes, tags or destroys.
Proteins of the immune system that are soluble (dissolved) in blood serum or other body fluids. Antibodies are produced to fight off bacteria, viruses, and other types of foreign antigens.
Proteins produced by the immune system of humans and other vertebrates in response to the presence of a specific antigen.
specific substances produced by the body for the purpose of neutralising a foreign substance, as part of a defence reaction
Any of various proteins (immunoglobulins) in the blood that are generated in reaction to foreign proteins or polysaccharides, thus producing an immunity against certain microorganisms or their toxins.
are proteins that the body produces to fight off foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses and transplanted organs.
Proteins produced by the body to fight harmful substances like viruses or bacteria that have entered the bloodstream.
Special proteins produced in response to foreign matter or infectious agents in the body.
Antibodies are protein molecules that are made by B-lymphocytes in response to a foreign invader, such as a virus or bacteria. The antibody binds to the foreign substance and either destroys it or makes it easier for other cells in the immune system to destroy it.
Proteins made by the immune system that attack structures called antigens, which they see as foreign to the body.
Proteins produced by the body's immune system in defence against infection and other "foreign" invasion.
Proteins produced by certain white blood cells in response to a foreign substance (antigen). Each antibody can bind only to one specific antigen. Its purpose is to destroy the antigen.
Proteins produced by B cells that attach to specific antigens and mark them for destruction.
Specialised proteins produced by cells of the immune system in response to invasion by a potentially harmful agent. One antibody is specific to one antigen. Antibodies either neutralise the antigen or help present it to the body's killer cells
The body's natural defense against infection. Antibodies are manufactured by the immune system and help destroy germs (e.g., bacteria, viruses) or toxins.
Proteins produced by white blood cells to fight infection and disease.
Immune substances produced in response to an infection or vaccination or acquired as in colostrum or antisera.
Proteins our body naturally produces to fend off infections. They attach to a virus and try to destroy it.
substances produced by the body to protect it against infection and some other foreign substances.
Proteins released by plasma cells that recognize and bind to the specific foreign substances. These foreign substances are called antigens. Plasma cells are derived from B lymphocytes. Antibodies coat, mark for destruction or inactivate foreign particles like bacteria, viruses or foreign chemicals like harmful toxins. Antibody binds specifically to its antigen. One, also, can make antibodies in the laboratory in two ways. If one injects material from one species into another, the latter will recognize it as foreign and make antibodies to it. Human cells injected into rabbits, for example, allows one to prepare rabbit antibodies directed against the human cell that acted as the antigen. These antibodies are usually polyclonal antibodies. A technique known as a hybridoma can be used to get immune cells in a laboratory flask to generate a specific antibody called a monoclonal antibody. These antibodies can be used in several important ways. They can be used to identify and classify human leukemias and lymphomas or can be altered to make them useful in antibody-mediated immunotherapy.
Proteins produced by the immune system in response to bacteria, viruses or other antigenic substances. In the case of hepatitis C, antibodies are produced in response to the virus and indicate past or present infection.
Proteins that are produced by specialized white blood cells and stick to germs and kill them before they can infect cells.
Proteins found in blood plasma (immunoglobulins) which play a part in the body's defence mechanisms against micro-organisms due to their ability to react specifically with an antigen. Antibody production is carried out by the cells of the immune system and is stimulated by the corresponding antigen.
Specialized proteins produced by your body. They circulate in the blood, looking for and attaching themselves to foreign proteins, microorganisms, or toxins to neutralize (destroy) them.
Proteins your body creates to fight a foreign invader (such as a toxin or bacteria) in the body. IgE is the antibody created during an allergic reaction.
Proteins produced by white blood cells (plasma cells and B lymphocytes) that confer immunity.
proteins produced by the immune system to fight specific bacteria, viruses, or other antigens.
Proteins produced by the immune system to neutralise infections or malignant cells. Click here to return to list
These are naturally occurring proteins that are created by the body on exposure to any antigen (e.g. measles virus, chickenpox, etc.), and which help the body to fight disease.
Circulating proteins (immunoglobulins) formed by the body to resist future invasion by specific microorganisms or foreign substances.
Proteins made by the body's immune system in response to foreign substance; attacks foreign substance and protects against infection
Natural substances produced by white blood cells which help to fight infection.
Proteins created by you immune system to fight disease/infections.
A Y-shaped protein on the surface of B cells that is secreted into the blood in response to a challenge to the immune system, such as a bacterium, virus, parasite, or transplanted organ. Antibodies neutralize foreign proteins by binding specifically to them. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins.
Special proteins, produced by the body's immune system, that help fight and destroy viruses, bacteria, and other foreign substances that invade the body.
proteins made by the immune system that bind to structures (antigens) they recognize as foreign to the body.
Proteins produced by plasma cells in response to foreign substances in the body.
Proteins produced by immune system cells that bind to foreign molecules and microorganisms and inactivate them. PICTURE
Chemicals made by the body to fight or attack foreign substances entering the body. Normally they prevent infection; however, when they attack the sperm or fetus, they cause infertility. Sperm antibodies may be made by either the man or the woman.
The hepatitis B surface antibody (HbsAb) indicates that a person is immune to the virus. A person can develop these antibodies in response to the vaccine or when they recover from a hepatitis B infection.
A protein that is produced by the bodyâ€(tm)s immune system when it detects a foreign object or invader â€“ or antigen.
Proteins produced by specialised white blood cells in response to antigens. An antibody will then react specifically with the antigen that induced its formation and will inactivate or destroy the antigen.
Proteins that are synthesized by cells of the immune system. Antibodies recognize and bind to specific receptors and target molecules. Monoclonal antibodies are directed against a certain antigen and originate from the same cell. Monoclonal antibodies are produced in cell culture.
A specific substance which appears in blood or tissues when a foreign element (antigen) enters the body (synonym: immunoglobulin).
are a type of protein. They are produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances that may be a threat to the body, such as chemicals, virus particles, spores, or bacterial toxins. These foreign substances are called antigens. Each type of antibody is unique and defends the body against one specific type of antigen.
Antibodies are part of the immune system, they are proteins which are produced by white blood cells, their task is to circulate in the body and to attach itself to any foreign particles (antigen) which it may come across.
Proteins made by the body to attack or fight foreign substances. Antibodies normally prevent infection; however they can be made against sperm, sometimes causing fertility problems. Either the male or female partner may produce sperm antibodies.
Proteins produced by white blood cells to fight bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances.
Protective proteins produced by the immune system that recognize and bind to foreign molecules (antigens).
Part of the body's natural defence systems. Produced to combat infections and invading substances recognised as not belonging to the body, for instance viruses and bacteria. On occasion antibodies can be produced inappropriately by the body, for example in response to a protein in food, resulting in an allergic reaction.
Proteins produced by humans and higher animals in response to the presence of a specific antigen.
Specific proteins synthesized and secreted by B-lymphocytes of immune system in response to antigen. These are also called immunoglobulins, which have a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the antigen that induced their synthesis and destroys it.
proteins made by the body that bind to foreign antigens. They help the body combat foreign microbes
proteins, expressed at the surface of a B cell or secreted by a plasma cell, which specifically bind to an antigen. When a soluble (circulating) antibody attaches to an antigen, it helps the body to destroy or inactivate that antigen.
substances occurring naturally in the body that help fight infection
protein molecules that are produced and secreted by certain types of white cells (lymphocytes) in response to stimulation by an antigen. Their primary function is to fight bacteria, viruses, toxins, and other substances foreign to the body.
proteins produced in response to a specific antigen, which can then combine with that antigen and neutralize it.
Protein substances produced by the human body in response to antigens. The most significant antibodies produced in case of MS are those made by B-lymphocytes.
chemicals in blood cells that fight bacteria.
proteins produced by the body in response to an infection.
Protein compounds (immunoglobulins) produced by plasma cells in response to specific antigens and having the capacity to react against the antigens
(AN-tih-BOD-ees) Proteins produced by certain white blood cells in response to foreign substances (antigens). Each antibody can bind only to a specific antigen. The purpose of this binding is to help destroy the antigen. Antibodies can work in several ways, depending on
Specific proteins produced by the body’s immune system that bind with foreign proteins (antigens).
A protein produced by the body in response to an infection.
Substances produced by the body as a reaction to many agents (viruses, bacteria, toxins). Antibodies exert a specific action against the agent under whose influence they were formed.
a protein produced by the body's immune system to fight infection or harmful foreign substances.
proteins produced by the body to neutralise or destroy toxins or disease carrying organisms.
These substances are produced by cells in the body's immune system in response to foreign substances (e.g. bacteria, viruses) which enter the body. They help in the destruction of the foreign substance.
proteins produced by the immune system to destroy something it recognises as foreign. The abnormal presence of antibodies to sperm in a woman's body can prevent sperm from recognising and therefore fertilising an egg.
Proteins produced by lymphocytes which neutralise antigens or foreign proteins. Formation of IgE antibodies (immunoglobulin E) may result in asthma, rhinitis or other Type 1 reactions when the individual is again exposed to the allergen which caused the initial IgE antibody formation.
Proteins in mother's milk and colostrum which provide immune defenses for the baby.
Proteins produced by special cells in the immune system to help fight invading viruses or bacteria
Special proteins produced by the body's immune system. They recognize and help fight infectious agents, such as bacteria and other foreign substances that invade the body. The presence of certain antibodies in the blood can help in making a diagnosis of some diseases, including some forms of scleroderma.
Protein molecules that attack and destroy foreign bodies in the body.
Proteins directed against infectious agents or other foreign substances.
Proteins produced by plasma cells, the descendants of B cells,Â to fight foreign molecules (antigens). When antigens enter the body, antibodies swiftly travel to potential trouble spots where they use various strategies to stop the spread of infection (see Allergies, Arthritis).
Circulating protein molecules that help neutralize disease organisms.
Any of the various proteins in the blood that are generated in response to foreign proteins.
Specialized proteins created in response to the presence of antigens in the body.
A protein synthesized by the immune system as part of a defensive mechanism. Immunoglobulins are antibody proteins generated against and capable of binding to an antigen.
Proteins secreted by cells of the immune system in response to a foreign invader to the body (for example, infection).
Substances produced by the immune system usually in response to foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses.
Substances formed in the blood as a counteractive to infectious agents called antigens. (See Seroprevalence Surveys).
A class of proteins (known as immunoglobulins) formed in the body in response to the presence of antigens (foreign proteins and other compounds), which bind to the antigen, inactivating it.
Proteins made by the body to protect itself from "foreign" substances such as bacteria or viruses. People get type 1 diabetes when their bodies make antibodies that destroy the body's own insulin-making beta cells.
proteins produced by an organism's immune system that recognize foreign proteins (or their surface sugars). Specific antibodies can be produced in large volumes and employed to detect, diagnose, or treat one or more diseases.
infection-fighting protein molecules in blood or secretory fluids that tag, neutralize, and help destroy pathogenic microorganisms such as viruses.
The proteins produced by B cells in response to an infection or vaccine. Also called immunoglobulins, antibodies bind to specific antigens.
proteins produced by cells of the immune system that destroy or inactivate foreign substances in the body.
A class of proteins called immunoglobulins produced by specialized lymphatic cells. These immunoglobulins bind to a specific antigen of the infecting agent or vaccine.
Complex substances formed to neutralize or destroy foreign matter in the blood. Antibody activity usually fights infection, but can be damaging in allergies and in autoimmune diseases.
specialized protein molecules produced and secreted by certain types of white cells. They attack and destroy special microbes that invade the body.
Antibodies are proteins (immunoglobulins) synthesized by the immune system in response to an antigen. They are Y-shaped, with a "tail" and two "arms." The arms have a unique shape that enables them to combine specifically with the antigen. This plays an important role in the bodyâ€(tm)s defense against infection (bacteria, viruses) or other foreign protein substances. The specificity of the antibody-antigen reaction forms a basis for highly specific and sensitive immunoassays. They can be used to purify specific molecules from a mixed solution using affinity.
Antibodies are proteins that circulate in the body. Whenever a person is exposed to a new pathogen (a virus or bacterium), the immune system creates specific antibodies for it. When an antibody bumps into the pathogen, it sends a message to the immune system's "killer" cells, prompting them to attack the invader.
Part of the immune system that fights disease.
Special microbe-fighting proteins in your blood. By attaching to invading microbes, they help white blood cells spot invaders and 'eat' them up.
Substances produced by the immune system in response to invading material.
Immune system proteins that fight against foreign substances.
Proteins synthesized by organs of the cows' immune system that aid in the elimination of foreign substances such as microorganisms.
Chemicals produced within the body, in response to a foreign substance, that are designed to destroy the "invader". It is possible for a woman to produce antibodies to her partner's sperm, or for a man to produce antibodies to his own sperm.
a molecule that has a specific amino acid sequence which interacts only with the antigen that it was synthesized against.
These are proteins that help to fight harmful viruses or bacteria.
Any of numerous protein molecules produced by the B-cells as a primary immune defense.
Specialized proteins produced by the cells of the immune system that counteract a specific foreign substance. The production of antibodies is the first line of defense in the body’s immune response.
A type of protein that reacts in with aa specific anitgen, part of the defence mechanism
Substances that neutralize body toxins and bacteria.
Proteins produced by the bodyâ€(tm)s immune system in response to the entry of â€˜foreignâ€(tm) material into the body. search for Antibodies
proteins produced by the body's immune system that attack foreign invaders (antigens) Humans as organisms
Substances found in the blood that spot, destroy, or neutralize bacteria, viruses, or other harmful toxins (antigens). They are made and released by the immune system in response to stimulation by an antigen. An antibody is specific to an antigen.
Molecules produced by the body which form the immune system. Each Antibody interacts with a specific Antigen as part of the body's response to these 'foreign' substances.
Integral part of the body's own defence system. Antibodies bind foreign and the body's own substances, for example, toxic substances and viruses and render them harmless. In medicine, antibodies can be used for diagnostic and treatment purposes. So-called monoclonal antibodies can be produced in the laboratory and used therapeutically for the treatment of tumour cells.
A Y-shaped protein on the surface of B cells that is secreted into the blood or lymph in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a bacterium, virus, parasite, or transplanted organ, and that neutralizes the antigen by binding specifically to it; an immunoglobulin.
Proteins produced by certain white blood cells in response to foreign substances (antigens). Each antibody can bind only to a specific antigen. The purpose of this binding is to help destroy the antigen. Antibodies can work in several ways, depending on the nature of the antigen. Some antibodies disable antigens directly. Others make the antigen more vulnerable to destruction by white blood cells.