A molecular technique in which the DNA of plant or microbe is used to generate banding patterns that can be used in determining the relationship between organisms.
(PCR TM, performed pursuant to an agreement with Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.) is a highly efficient method to amplify low levels of specific DNA sequences in a sample to reach the threshold of detection. Two short DNA "primers", oligonucleotides (small portions of a single DNA strand) specific for the pathogenic DNA sought whose sequence flanks that section of DNA to be amplified, are used. Repeated cycles of DNA denaturation (separation of the double DNA strands), primer annealing (recombination of the double-stranded structure) and extension of the primed DNA sequence (by the enzyme DNA polymerase in the presence of added purine and pyrimidine bases) are performed. Each cycle doubles the amount of specific DNA sequence present and results in an exponential accumulation of the DNA fragment being amplified. The reaction products are hybridized to a radioactively labeled DNA segment complementary to a short sequence of the amplified DNA. Following electrophoresis, the radiolabeled product of specific size is detected by autoradiography.
Molecular technique used to replicate and amplify a fragment of DNA
A technique developed during the s that uses enzymes to copy short segments of DNA allowing a few starting molecules to be amplified to enormous quantities for sequencing or other research
a procedure where a piece of DNA is copied many times to do genetic analysis. It can be used to amplify very small amounts of DNA.
One of several highly sensitive tests that measure the amount of viral genetic material (HCV RNA, for example) in the blood (see ‘viral load' and ‘bDNA assay').
Commonly used technique that leads to the selective amplification of a nucleotide sequence of interest. The amplified DNA becomes the predominant sequence in the mixture upon PCR amplification. Often used to make nucleotide probes for diagnostics.
A technique used to make numerous copies of a specific segment of DNA quickly and accurately; a three-step process carried out in repeated cycles that includes denaturation, or separation, of the two strands of the DNA molecule, each of which is a template on which a new strand is built in the second step, and to which the DNA polymerase adds nucleotides onto the annealed primers in the third step to double the DNA in each cycle.
A techique for the cyclic amplification of DNA segments by thermostable DNA polymerase. Following heat denaturation of the DNA, oligonucleotide primers complementary to flanking regions are annealed and extended, resulting in the synthesis of replicate
A laboratory process in which a particular DNA segment from a mixture of DNA chains is rapidly replicated, producing a large, readily analyzed sample of a piece of DNA.
A method of amplifying specific DNA sequences by means of repeated rounds of primer-directed DNA synthesis.
Test that can detect and/or DNA fragments of viruses or other organisms in blood or tissue. PCR works by repeatedly copying genetic material using heat cycling, and enzymes similar to those used by cells.
A technique for copying and amplifying the complementary strands of a target DNA molecule. It is an in vitro method that greatly amplifies, or makes millions of copies of, DNA sequences that otherwise could not be detected or studied.
A genetic-engineering technique able to multiply tiny segments of DNA millions of times, for use in chemical and biological experiments, and in forensics.
a highly sensitive test that uses an amplification technique to detect small amounts of DNA or RNA in blood or tissue samples.
A fast, inexpensive technique for making an unlimited number of copies of any piece of DNA. Sometimes called "molecular photocopying," PCR has had an immense impact on biology and medicine, especially genetic research.
A technique used to enzymatically amplify the number of copies of a sequence of DNA.
system for in vitro amplification of DNA that involves separating the DNA into its two complementary strands and using DNA enzymes to synthesize two-stranded DNA from each single strand, and repeating the process
A method for enzymatically and exponentially amplifying a selected region of DNA
a laboratory method of amplifying low levels of specific microbial DNA or RNA sequences.
A widespread molecular biology procedure that allows the production of multiple copies (amplification) of a specific DNA sequence, provided that the base pair sequence of each end of the target is known. It involves multiple cycles of DNA denaturation, primer annealing, and strand extension, and requires a thermostable DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleotides, and specific oligonucleotides (primers).
a laboratory procedure used to amplify a specific segment of DNA by use of certain primers, enzymes and conditions. A minute amount of DNA is rapidly turned into a measurable quantity of the gene to be tested.
A method that increases the sensitivity of DNA testing (e.g. to detect HIV) by making multiple copies of the DNA sequence in question.
a method used to make multiple copies of DNA by a process developed in the mid-1980s. It is used to detect the existence of specific microbial genes in DNA samples extracted from infected blood, tissue or ticks.
A technique for the rapid production of millions of copies of a particular stretch of DNA.
Method of copying short DNA sequences millions of times in vitro.
A laboratory method used to make many copies of a specific DNA sequence.
An in vitro process for making many copies of a chosen fragment of DNA.
A method of DNA analysis that amplifies a specific DNA (gene) region allowing rapid DNA analysis.
A laboratory technique used to make millions of copies of a known piece of DNA, used in many medical and forensic tests.
A technique used in genetic (DNA) diagnosis.
a genetic engineering technique used to reproduce segments of DNA millions of times; it is used in forensics and chemical and biological experiments.
A very sensitive test used in research to detect minute amounts of DNA from an organ.
the first practical system for in vitro amplification of DNA, and as such one of the most important recent developments in molecular biology.
A serial reaction involving the use of a heat-stable DNA polymerase to amplify a DNA sequence millions of times in a few hours.
The process whereby a segment of DNA is copied or cloned, using DNA polymerase so that its sequence is multiplied many times in a laboratory.
A method of replicating very small amounts of DNA which can be used in HIV testing to detect HIV viral DNA prior to seroconversion of the individual. .
A method for amplifying DNA in vitro, involving the use of oligonucleotide primers complementary to nucleotide sequences in a target gene and the copying of the target sequences by the action of DNA polymerase.
A laboratory method used to make many copies of a DNA fragment in minutes using an enzyme called polymerase.
An amplification test for chlamydia. A process whereby a strand of DNA can be cloned (replicated) millions of times within a few hours.
in vitro method for rapid amplification of DNA
An laboratory technique for amplifying a large number of copies of a specific DNA segment flanked with two known target sequences called primers.
A type of nucleic acid amplification test.
Français] A method that simulates an environment for rapid DNA replication of specific DNA segments. This procedure results in multiple copies of the specific DNA sequence which are then used in various experiments for diagnostic and analytical purposes.
An efficient, simple, and rapid technique to amplify a segment of DNA in a test tube (see text of notes for a more complete explanation).
A method for amplifying a DNA base sequence using a heat-stable polymerase and two primers, one complementary to the (+)-strand at one end of the sequence to be amplified and the other complementary to the (-)-strand at the other end. The faithfulness of reproduction of the sequence is related to the fidelity of the polymerase. Errors may be introduced into the sequence using this method of amplification.
A method for exponentially increasing the number of copies of a specific DNA sequence. The use of PCR enables the genetic analysis of biological samples containing only tiny amounts of DNA.
1. A laboratory process that selects a DNA segment from a mixture of DNA chains and rapidly replicates it; used to create a large, readily analyzed sample of a piece of DNA. It is used in DNA fingerprinting and in medical tests to identify diseases from the infectious agent's DNA. 2. As related to HIV-also called RT-PCR-a sensitive laboratory technique that can detect and quantify HIV in a person's blood or lymph nodes. PCR works by repeatedly copying genetic material using heat cycling and enzymes similar to those used by cells.
PCR is a technique for creating millions of copies of a specific region of DNA. Two short DNA "primers" adhere to sites flanking the DNA segment of interest. DNA polymerase added to the reaction mixture amplifies the DNA between the primers.
technique that amplifies small quantities of DNA in vitro to increase the mass of available material; used to identify and amplify a few mutant copies of genes.
A technique allowing the production of multiple copies of extremely small amounts of DNA fragments using DNA polymerase and specific primers.
A highly sophisticated technique during which a known sequence of DNA is copied rapidly over a short period, such as millions of copies over a few hours. PCR testing assists in diagnosing certain genetic disorders, helps identify individuals through analysis of a single cell or so-called "DNA fingerprinting," or characterizes certain strains of infectious microorganisms.
Experimental technique used to amplify DNA.
A testing technique that can identify the DNA or RNA (ie, the primary genetic material) of a specific organism. This type of test can identify hepatitis C virus RNA in a blood sample, and is the most specific test for hepatitis C infection.
Technique which amplifies specific segments of DNA. -- PCR overview by Access Excellence is a good reference
A technique used to create a large number of copies of a target DNA sequence of interest. One use of PCR is in the detection of DNA sequences that indicate the presence of a particular genetically engineered organism.
A process used in DNA identification testing in which one or more specific small regions of the DNA are copied using a DNA polymerase enzyme so that a sufficient amount of DNA is generated for analysis.
A method of amplifying or copying DNA fragments that is faster than cloning. The fragments are combined with DNA polymerase, nucleotides, and other components to form a mixture in which the DNA is cyclically amplified.
A technique for replicating a specific piece of DNA in-vitro , even in the presence of excess non-specific DNA. Primers are added (which initiate the copying of each strand) along with nucleotides and Taq polymerase. By cycling the temperature, the target DNA is repetitively denatured and copied. A single copy of the target DNA, even if mixed in with other undesirable DNA, can be amplified to obtain billions of replicates. PCR can be used to amplify RNA sequences if they are first converted to DNA via reverse transcriptase. This two-phase procedure is known as ‘RT-PCR'. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is the basis for a number of extremely important methods in molecular biology. It can be used to detect and measure vanishingly small amounts of DNA and to create customized pieces of DNA. It has been applied to clinical diagnosis and therapy, to forensics and to vast numbers of research applications. It would be difficult to overstate the importance of PCR to science.
a method using sequential DNA polymerase reactions to amplify a single copy of gene segment
Multiplying a particular DNA segment in repeated cycles. The "copies" made in a previous cycle are used as "originals" or templates in the next cycle. For example, PCR enables forensics experts to do DNA testing on very small blood samples.
a technique that amplifies nucleic acid sequences exponentially.
a technique for making many copies of a specific DNA sequence. The reaction is initiated using a pair of short primer sequences which match the ends of the sequence to be copied. Thereafter, each cycle of the reaction copies the sequence between the primers. Primers can bind to the copies as well as the original sequence, so the total number of copies increases exponentially with time.
A test performed to evaluate false-negative results to the ELISA and Western blot tests. In PCR testing, numerous copies of a gene are made by separating the two strands of DNA containing the gene segment, marking its location, using DNA polymerase to make a copy, and then continuously replicating the copies. The amplification of gene sequences that are associated with HIV allows for detection of the virus by this method.
A procedure that produces millions of copies of a short segment of DNA through repeated cycles of: 1) denaturation, 2) annealing, and 3) elongation; PCR is a very common procedure in molecular genetic testing and may be used to: 1) generate a sufficient quantity of DNA to perform a test (e.g., sequence analysis, mutation scanning), or 2) may be a test in and of itself (e.g., allele-specific amplification, trinucleotide repeat quantification). Related Terms: Southern blot ; X-chromosome inactivation study ; conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis ; denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ; mutation analysis ; mutation scanning ; restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis ; sequence analysis ; single-stranded conformational polymorphism
a powerful technique for synthesizing a large amount of DNA from very small amounts of DNA having a specific sequence. This is accomplished through repeated cycles of denaturation, primer anneali ng, and replication (extension) using a heat-resistant DNA polymerase. Is also used in DNA sequencing.
A technique to expand trace amounts of DNA or RNA so that the specific type of the DNA or RNA can be studied or determined. This technique has become useful in detecting a very low concentration of residual leukemia or lymphoma cells, too few to be seen using a microscope. The technique can detect the presence of one leukemic cell among five hundred thousand to one million non-leukemic cells. PCR requires a specific DNA (or RNA) abnormality or marker, like an oncogene, in the leukemic or lymphomatous cells for its use to identify residual abnormal cells.
A technique used to amplify or generate large amounts of replica DNA or a segment of any DNA whose ``flanking'' sequences are known. Oligonucleotide primers that bind these flanking sequences are used by an enzyme to copy the sequence in between the primers. Cycles of heat to break apart the DNA strands, cooling to allow the primers to bind, and heating again to allow the enzyme to copy the intervening sequence lead to doubling of the DNA present at each cycle.
Automated enzymatic method for the specific and quick reproduction of DNA segments.
A technique for massively and rapidly amplifying a specific, short DNA molecule.
a common method of creating copies of specific fragments of DNA
An in vitro method for enzymatically synthesizing and amplifying defined sequences of DNA in molecular biology. Can be used for improving DNA-based diagnostic procedures for identifying unknown BW agents.
is a molecular biology technique for emzymatically amplifying (creating multiple copies of) DNA without using a living organism, such as E. coli or yeast. The technique allows a small sample of DNA to be copied multiple times so it can be used for analysis, for example to detect contamination with (known) GMOs. Unknown transgenic DNA cannot be detected by PCR. For details and a description of the procedure check Wikipedia
PCR) The process of copying repeatedly a small piece of DNA until that area is present in larger, more detectable amounts
a method used to replicate specific portions of the DNA strands. The DNA is heated, causing the two strands to separate like a zipper. The two DNA halves are then cooled and mixed with a special enzyme. The result of this process is the creation of two DNA strands identical to each other and to the original DNA strand. This process is repeated many times to replicate a desired DNA sequence millions of times in a matter of hours. PCR is especially valuable because it does not require high quality or large quantities of DNA. Also, this method lends itself to automation and less labor-intensive typing. The PCR/STR analysis process includes five stages, which are extraction, quantification, amplification, electrophoresis, and data interpretation.
A laboratory technique that amplifies the genetic material of a virus to a level that can be detected. The presence or absence of the virus can then be determined. PCR is used to directly measure for the hepatitis C infection.
A method for amplifying a DNA base sequence using a heat- stable polymerase and two 20- base primers, one complementary to the (+)- strand at one end of the sequence to be amplified and the other complementary to the (- )- strand at the other end. Because the newly synthesized DNA strands can subsequently serve as additional templates for the same primer sequences, successive rounds of primer annealing, strand elongation, and dissociation produce rapid and highly specific amplification of the desired sequence. PCR also can be used to detect the existence of the defined sequence in a DNA sample.
a method to produce sufficient DNA for analysis from a very small amount of DNA.
(PCR) A technique for amplifying a selected region of a DNA molecule.
a method for creating millions of copies of a particular segment of DNA. If a scientist needs to detect the presence of a very small amount of a particular DNA sequence, PCR can be used to amplify the amount of that sequence until there are enough copies available to be detected.
Method for amplifying DNA (multiplying small amounts of DNA for analysis) that uses enzymes to increase the amount of specific DNA fragments (fragments of up to about 6,000 base pairs).
The fragments are then amplified by cloning or by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. (IOOakRidge) Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) K. Mullis desenvolve o método de PCR (Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase). (POPrGenoma)
An enzyme-mediated technique that allows specific DNA sequences to be amplified.
A "biological copy machine": a method for making many copies of a specific DNA base sequence.
A method for amplifying specific DNA segments that exploits certain features of DNA replication.
A technique used in the process of DNA profiling.
Polymerase Chain Reaction, or PCR, is a process which permits scientists to make unlimited copies of genes. This is done with a single molecule of DNA. One hundred billion copies of the DNA can be generated in a few hours. This technique is used to investigate and diagnose bacterial diseases, viruses associated with cancer, and genetic diseases such as diabetes mellitus.
a powerful technique for producing millions of copies of a specific region of DNA, so it can be analyzed as readily as can a purified chemical substance. PCR has been instrumental in major breakthroughs in diagnostic kit development, forensic medicine, and detection of genes associated with inborn errors of metabolism. A Nobel Prize in medicine was awarded in 1993 for the development of PCR.
PCR): "An in vitro method for enzymatically synthesizing and amplifying defined sequences of DNA in molecular biology." [USAMRIID, p. A-15
A laboratory process that selects a DNA segment from a mixture of DNA chains and rapidly multiplies it to create a large sample of a piece of DNA. It is a sensitive laboratory technique that can detect and measure HIV in a person's blood or lymph nodes (also called RT-PCR). It is also a means of measuring the amount of virus in the blood (viral load).
A technique for making multiple copies of a specific stretch of DNA or RNA; can be used to test for mutations in DNA. For example, if a stretch of DNA is mutated, the copies of it made with the PCR can be longer or shorter than normal.
(PCR): An in vitro process that yields millions of copies of desired DNA through repeated cycling of a reaction involving the DNA polymerase enzyme.
Method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The selective amplification of DNA by repeated cycles of (a) heat denaturation of the DNA, (b) annealing of two oligonucleotide primers that flank the DNA segment to be amplified and (c) the extension of the annealed primers with the heat insensitive Tag DNA polymerase. ( 10)
A reaction that uses the enzyme DNA polymerase to catalyze the formation of more DNA strands from an original one by the execution of repeated cycles of DNA synthesis. Procaryotes: Simple organisms that lack a distinct nuclear membrane and other organelles. See Eucaryotes.
(PCR) A method of amplifying (increasing in number) a single piece of DNA (the stuff of genes) to get enough of it to analyze physically or chemically for DNA testing. A machine is used that uses alternate cycles of high temperature (to separate DNA's two strands) and medium temperatures (to combine each of the two single strands with free nucleic acids to make new complementary strands), doubling the amount of DNA in the machine's soup each cycle. A few hours in the machine automatically creates millions of identical DNA molecules from just one specimen. Needless to say, it's extremely important that you start with the right bit of DNA, so you're not inadvertently amplifying a bit of contamination! In the film Jurassic Park, PCR was used to amplify bits of dinosaur DNA recovered from the bellies of contemporary insects, which had been trapped and preserved for millions of years inside pieces of amber. A biopsy of a single cell from an embryo after IVF can, with PCR, produce enough DNA to test it for certain genes that cause serious genetic disease. See also: preimplantation genetic diagnosis
A technique which amplifies the number of copies of specific regions of DNA in order to produce enough DNA to be sufficiently tested. DNA is double-stranded (except in some viruses), and the two stands pair up in a very specific way. A gene's "building-block sequence" is the specific order of appearance of 4 different deoxyribonucleotides within a segment of DNA. These 4 components are: adenine (A), thymadine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). The arrangement of this 4-letter alphabet generates a gene sequence. In this technique DNA is heated (denaturization) in order to separate the 2 strands. Primers are added and then the DNA is cooled in order to allow double-strands to form again. An enzyme is then added in cycles, which can "read" the gene sequence, and result in multiplication of DNA. PCR is utilized to diagnose gene-specific diseases, as well as disease-causing viruses and/or bacteria, or to link a criminal suspect to a crime.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biochemistry and molecular biology techniquehttp://www.si.edu/archives/ihd/videocatalog/9577.htm The history of PCR: Smithsonian Institution Archives, Institutional History Division. Retrieved 24 June 2006. for enzymatically replicating DNA without using a living organism, such as E. coli or yeast. Like amplification using living organisms, the technique allows a small amount of DNA to be amplified exponentially.