(END-point) In a clinical trial an endpoint is an event or outcome that can be measured objectively to determine whether the treatment being studied is working. Examples of endpoints include survival, tumor regression and relief of symptoms.
the criterion or criteria used to judge the results of an intervention or action. Primary endpoints are the explicit variables that define the relationship being hypothesized. Secondary endpoints are measures that may result from the research or be defined by the research that are not related directly to the question(s) being studied.
Measurable ecological or toxicological characteristic or parameter of the test system (usually an organism) that is chosen as the most relevant assessment criterion (e.g. death in an acute test or tumour incidence in a chronic study).
A category of data used to compare the outcomes in different arms of a clinical trial. Common endpoints are severe toxicity, disease progression, or-especially in HIV disease-surrogate markers, such as CD4 count. Sometimes death is used as an endpoint. The term is confusing because it often incorrectly implies that patients in a study are no longer followed after they experience an endpoint. This is obviously true when the event is death, but need not be so for nonfatal events. In fact, the design of the trial may require continued treatment and follow-up of patients over the entire course of the trial, regardless of the number of nonfatal "endpoints" observed.
The final results of an intervention, such as vaccination, compared among different groups in a clinical trial. In early vaccine trials, common endpoints are safety and specific types and levels of immune responses (e.g., neutralizing antibodies, CTLs).
a measure that determines whether the treatment under study has an effect
What researchers measure to evaluate the results of a new treatment being tested in a clinical trial. Research teams establish the endpoints of a trial before it begins. Examples of endpoints include toxicity, tumor response, survival time and quality of life.
The outcome of a clinical trial.
An indicator measured in a subject or biological sample to assess the safety, efficacy, or other objective of a trial. See also surrogate marker.
An event used by clinical trial researchers to evaluate whether an experimental treatment is working. For example, developing AIDS or a low CD4 count may be the endpoint of a trial for people who had no previous symptoms.
a measure or indicator chosen for determining an effect of an intervention.
Overall outcome that the protocol is designed to evaluate. Common endpoints are severe toxicity, disease progression, or death.
a direct marker of disease progression, e.g., disease symptoms or death. The effectiveness of drug therapies is often determined by observing the clinical endpoints that develop over time in patients undergoing experimental treatment. Contrast with surrogate marker.
In clinical trials, an event or outcome that can be measured objectively to determine whether the intervention being studied is beneficial. The endpoints of a clinical trial are usually included in the study objectives. Some examples of endpoints are survival, improvements in quality of life, relief of symptoms, and disappearance of the tumor.
An outcome or medical event that a clinical trial monitors. Common endpoints include death or need for hospitalization. For example, a clinical trial studying a new cancer drug might use death as an endpoint to determine if people getting the drug lived longer than those who did not get the drug.
the results of an intervention such as vaccination compared among different study groups in a clinical trial. In early vaccine trials, common endpoints are safety and specific types and intensities of immune responses (neutralizing antibodies, CTL responses).
A predetermined set of conditions that define whether a clinical objective has been achieved by the treatment under investigation. Normally clinical trials have a primary endpoint as well as a secondary endpoint.
A primary or secondary outcome variable used to judge the effectiveness of a treatment This term is confusing because it often incorrectly implies that patients in a study are no longer followed after they experience an endpoint. This is obviously true where the event is death, but need not be so for nonfatal events. In fact, the design of the trial may require continued treatment and follow-up of patients over the entire course of the trial, regardless of the number of nonfatal "endpoints" observed. See "Event," "Clinical Event," "Primary Outcome," and "Primary Event" for preferred terms.