The addition of a chemical group (methyl) to DNA that epigenentically alters gene expression.
Enzymatic addition of methyl (CH3) group to DNA which causes inactivation of that region. Usually CpG nucleotide pairs are target for this addition.
Methylation of cytosine (usually in CG stretches) -- sign for transcription factors to activate the gene and thus produce a protein. It is generally understood that genes that are available for transcription are sometimes less heavily methylated than the same genes in cells in which they are never expressed. It also refers to the addition of a methyl group to a chemical compound or macromolecule.
The process of chemically attaching a methyl group to a base residue in DNA and/or RNA molecules. Methylation can protect DNA from cleavage by a restriction nuclease if the methylated base(s) is located within the nuclease's recognition sequence.
A biochemical process involving the addition of chemical tags called methyl groups (-CH3) to DNA. Methylation can be a signal for a gene or a section of a chromosome to turn off gene expression and become inactive or "silent".
a chemical modification of cytosine, one of the four chemical subunits of DNA
a chemical modification of the nucleotide sequence itself that can change the expression of different genes
a chemical sequence found on the outside of DNA sequence, which enables storage of DNA
a commonly occurring modification of human DNA
a covalent, postreplicative modification of cytosine bases that typically occurs in CpG dinucleotides
a crucial component of the epigenetic control of gene activity through the regulation of chromatin state
a determinant of gene amplification in vivo, for example in tumor cells
a further layer of control and is regarded by scientists as one of the most important regulators of gene activity
a heritable epigenetic feature that is associated with transcriptional silencing, X-chromosome inactivation, genetic imprinting, and
a host defense mechanism is neither proven nor universal
a major epigenetic factor involved in gene regulation, genomic imprinting, and genome stability
a major epigenetic factor that has been postulated to regulate cell lineage differentiation
a major epigenetic modification of the genome that regulates crucial aspects of its function
a mechanism for making global modifications to chromatin structure that are almost certainly involved in epigenetic regulation
a mechanism regulating gene expression (Yung et al
a mechanism used by human cells to turn off the genes of invading organisms, such as viruses
a method used by the cell to turn off its genes
a naturally occurring modification of cytosine, one of the four bases of the DNA molecule
a naturally occurring modification of the genetic material that leads to inactivation of genes and the development of cancer
a natural process that occurs when a methyl group binds to one of DNA's four bases, cytosine
a natural switch that controls gene expression, giving rise to distinct patterns in cells, including those found in cancer and other diseases
an effective mechanism to stop
an epigenetic event that affects cell
an epigenetic mechanism regulating transcription, which when disrupted, can alter gene expression and contribute to carcinogenesis
an epigenetic modification that is implicated in transcriptional silencing
an essential process for proper embryonic development, gene expression, and genome stability
an example of a way genes can be turned off without altering the sequence
an important epigenetic mechanism by which HLA-G antigen expression is modulated in melanoma cells in vitro
an important player in many processes, including DNA repair, genome instability, and regulation of chromatin structure
an initiating event in gene silencing or consolidating mechanism that comes into play once a gene has become inactive through other mechanisms deserves clarification
a potent mechanism for silencing gene expression and maintaining genome stability in the face of a vast amount of repetitive DNA (Fig
a rapidly growing area of interest in Epigenetics, the study of heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of the nuclear DNA, in humans, animals and plants
a significant contributor of point mutations at CpG dinucleotides in a variety of growth-regulatory genes
a type of chemical modification of DNA that can be inherited
a way in which the body silences or locks certain genes
The attachment of methyl groups to DNA at cytosine bases; correlated with reduced transcription of the gene and thought to be the principal mechanism in X-chromosome inactivation and imprinting
DNA methylation analysis. A form of genetic testing used to determine the parent of origin of chromosome 15q, which is always maternal in Prader-Willi syndrome.
The addition of -CH3 (methyl) groups to a target site. Typically such addition occurs on to the cytosine bases of DNA
Attachment of a methyl group to an organic compound; a common gene control.
A way to silence genes by adding a methyl group to a histone, causing the DNA to coil up into chromosomes and preventing further transcription.