"Messenger molecules" by which cells of the immune system signal and instruct one another; the interferons and the interleukins are examples.
Chemicals produced by one group of cells that affect the growth and function of others
Hormone-like proteins that are secreted by many different types of cells. Cytokines regulate the intensity and duration of immune responses.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialised glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
a unique family of growth factors. They are secreted primarily from leukocytes and stimulate both the humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as the activation of phagocytic cells. Cytokines that are secreted from lymphocytes are termed lymphokines. A large family of cytokines are produced by various cells of the body
A generic term for small, non-antibody proteins, secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells on contact with specific antigen, which act as intercellular mediators. The cytokines includes the interleukins, lymphokines and cell signal molecules, such as tumour necrosis factor and the interferons, which trigger inflammation and respond to infections.
compounds from the immune system, some of which are involved with the level of sleepiness. (pp. 103)
Chemicals that are involved in growth regulations. They influence both bone resorption and bone formation. Messenger molecules of the immune system that can have beneficial and harmful effects. May play a role in MS by mediating myelin damage and regulating auto-immune response.
proteins produced naturally in the body, where they act as "messengers" to initiate inflammatory and disease-fighting responses to viruses, bacteria, toxins, injury, and malignant processes. Cytokines are in use as anti-cancer drugs.
Signaling proteins produced by some mammalian cells in response to stimuli; mediators of inflammation, toxic shock (Lecture: Innate Immunity and Inflammation II, 2/21/02)
These are cell-derived chemicals that are secreted by various types of cells and act on other cells to stimulate or inhibit their function. Chemicals derived from lymphocytes are called “lymphokines.” Chemicals derived from lymphocytes that act on other white blood cells are called “interleukins,” that is, they interact between two types of leukocytes. Some cytokines can be made commercially and used in treatment. Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is one such cytokine. It stimulates the production of neutrophils and shortens the period of low neutrophil counts in the blood after chemotherapy. Cytokines that stimulate cell growth are sometimes referred to as “growth factors.
any of several regulatory proteins, such as the interleukins and lymphokines, that are released by cells of the immune system and act as intercellular mediators in the generation of an immune response
A large group of inflammatory peptide or protein mediators
biologically active, soluble fractions secreted by lymphocytes and other cells.
A generic term for nonantibody proteins released by one cell population, for example activated T lymphocytes, on contact with a specific antigen, which act as intercellular mediators.
a term used in immunology referring to any other molecule released by cells to control reactions between other cells (Biotech Life Science Dictionary 1998).
Soluble signalling molecules produced by cells to activate the immune system.
(noun) mediators used in cell-to-cell communications, essential for the regulation of the immune system, which cause certain actions like activation or proliferation when meeting receptors on leukocytes ( white blood cells).
Substances produced during an allergic and other inflammatory reactions that modify the functions of cells to amplify the inflammation.
As well as blood cells and antibodies, large numbers of chemicals are produced to assist in the immune response. E.g. IL2 and Interferon used in cancer therapy Dendritic cells Dendritic cells are central to the regulation of the cellular response. The function of dendritic cells is to look for and recognise foreign materials and to transport these materials to areas such as lymph nodes, where they can be recognised by T cells. In this way dendritic cells are important for â€œshowingâ€ the t-cells what to respond to. Immune system The immune system is a network of cells and other factors which work together to fight infection. It is complicated with many different layers of defence and regulation, but broadly speaking it can be split into two categories; Humoral immunity (antibodies circulating in the blood which recognise foreign materials and aid in their destruction) and Cellular (where cells, often white blood cells, respond to destroy foreign materials directly or act to regulate other cells during an immune response). Cancer vaccines can be made to stimulate both sorts of immunity but dendritic cell vaccines are specific to cellular immunity.
Hormones or growth factors produced by cells that help regulate cell processes.
A family of molecules, produced primarily by cells of the immune system, which regulate cellular interactions and other functions. Many cytokines play important roles in initiating and regulating inflammation.
Hormone-like chemicals synthesized by lymphocytes (and other cells) which have a variety of localized effects such as stimulating cell proliferation
Secreted proteins that are important for interactions between immune cells and help orchestrate an immune response. Some cytokines stimulate or suppress the activity of immune cells. Others, such as lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor, are cytotoxic. T cells, B cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and many other types of cells make cytokines. Cytokines can also be produced in the laboratory by recombinant DNA technology and given to people to affect immune responses. Also called interleukins or lymphokines.
Signal substences between cells, sometimes making cells migrate to the place where high levels of cytokines are at hand. Joint term denoting low-molecular weight proteins formed by a number of cells and with stimulation or inhibitory effect on cells, especially immune cells concerning their growth, maturation and function.
are proteins (usually glycoproteins) of relatively low molecular mass and often consisting of just a single chain. They regulate all the important biological processes - cell growth, cell activation, inflammation, immunity, tissue repair, fibrosis and morphogenesis. Although cytokins are considered to be a family, this is a functional rather than a structural concept; these proteins are not all chemically related. (Ex. Interferons and Interleukins).
Proteins which occur naturally in the body, and which are similar to hormones. Intercellular mediators, cytokines differ from hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissues or cell types. They may stimulate immunity.
T cells produce a type of protein called cytokines. In MS, cytokines can damage myelin.
Compounds involved in regulating the immune response
Cytokines are a group of compounds that are secreted primarily from white blood cells when the immune system is activated. They stimulate both the humoral and cellular immune responses, and activate other cells of the immune system. Some of the cytokines are called interleukins.
A class of substances that are produced by cells of the immune system and can affect the immune response. Cytokines can also be produced in the laboratory by recombinant DNA technology and given to people to affect immune responses.
Growth factors which promote the proliferation and maturation of blood cells.
Molecules produced by cells of the immune system to help them to communicate with each other. They help to orchestrate the activities of the immune system.
Related Topic"...They are secreted by white blood cells, T cells, epithelial cells and some other body cells..."
Proteins that are made by the immune system to help regulate the immune system and inflammation.
Chemical messengers in the body that help direct and regulate response and are involved in cell-to-cell communication.
SI-toe-kines Chemicals that B cells secrete. 791
Proteins produced by many different cell types that mediate inflammatory and immune reactions. Cytokines are principal mediators of communication between cells of the immune system (1).
messenger cells that play a role in the inflammatory response to infection.
proteins that are the effective elements of immune response. Three main functions of cytokines are part of life/ death control: recognition of foreign antigens, recruitment of WBC response and activation of Â“killerÂ” functions
unique family of growth factors which are secreted primarily from leukocytes. Cytokines stimulate immune responses
Proteins produced by white blood cells that act as chemical messengers between cells. They can stimulate or inhibit the growth and activity of various immune cells. HIV replication is regulated by a delicate balance among the body's own cytokines. By altering that balance, one can influence the replication of the virus in the test tube and potentially even in the body. See Interleukins; Tumor Necrosis Factor.
Proteins produced by the body's white blood cells which encourage an immune system response to a foreign invader. Certain cytokines, such as interferon, encourage the body's immune system to fight cancer.
Proteins secreted by various types of cells and involved in cell-to-cell communication during immune responses.
Natural messenger substances produced by many different cells in the body, including white blood cells and skin cells. They help to activate defense mechanisms against infection and aid healing.
a protein produced by white blood cells, that acts as a messenger between cells. Cytokines can stimulate or inhibit the growth and activity of various immune cells. Cytokines are essential for a coordinated immune response. HIV replication is regulated by a delicate balance among the body's own cytokines. By altering that balance one can change the replication of the virus in the test tube and potentially even in the body.
Messenger molecules that enable immune cells to "talk" to one another and to other cells. Cytokines regulate the strength and duration of an immune response. Neurons also use certain cytokines to communicate with each other. Common cytokines include interferon, interlukin and lymphokines.
powerful chemical substances secreted by T-cells. Cytokines are an important factor in the production of inflammation and show promise as treatments for MS.
proteins used for communication by cells of the immune system. Central to the normal regulation of the immune response.
Related Topic"...Th1 (T-cell Helper type 1) promote cell-mediated immunity (CMI) while Th2 (T-cell Helper type 2) induce humoral immunity ( antibodies)..."
chemical messengers that are involved in the regulation of almost every system in the body and are important in controlling local and systemic inflammatory response.
Hormone-like low molecular weight proteins secreted by many different cell types, which regulate the intensity and duration of immune responses. Cytokines amplify some parts of the immune system and suppress other parts. Many cytokines have been identified such as interferon-a,b, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). Cytokines made by lymphocytes are often called lymphokines or interleukins (abbreviated IL).
A large family of low-molecular-weight soluble proteins involved in regulating cellular activity, particularly (but by no means exclusively) within the immune system.
Proteins secreted by cells in response to specific stimuli which are involved in cell-to-cell communication. These proteins help regulate immune response.
Powerful chemical substances secreted by cells. Cytokines include lymphokines produced by lymphocytes and monokines produced by monocytes and macrophages.
chemicals produced by the immune system that stimulate white blood cells to attack and kill viruses, bacteria, foreign cells, or cancer cells.
intercellular mediators for signals, for example, chemicals that are involved in growth regulation, such as those that stimulate fibroblast migration and proliferation.
Mastocytosis Syphilis Mediator Systemic
A group of soluble, hormone-like proteins produced by white blood cells and that act as messengers between cells. Cytokines regulate the intensity and duration of immune responses and are involved in cell-to-cell communication.
these are like 'messages in bottles' sent by one cell to itself or another cell, altering its properties or behaviour. There are many different cytokines released by cells of the immune system which cause events such as growth, survival, increase in presentation of certain cell surface molecules such as MHC, and activation of cells such as phagocytes. Diabetes - referring to diabetes mellitus, this is a disorder in which sugar can not get into cells to be used to make energy. There is then, an excess of sugar in the blood (hyperglycaemia) which overflows into the urine taking water with it and causing tremendous thirst.
Proteins produced by white blood cells that act as chemical messengers between cells to mediate immune response. CD8 (T-suppresser) cells release a cytokine that appears to block HIV replication in infected cells, at least until the advanced stage of HIV disease.
Small, hormone-like proteins released by leukocytes, endothelial cells, and other cells to promote an inflammatory immune response to an injury.
Refers to biologic messenger or signalling type proteins that enable cells to influence one another. Cytokines are important as part of the immune system in the body. In disease states, however, cytokines may send messages that may lead to further joint inflammation and damage.
Bioactive proteins produced by many human cells especially endothelial cells and macrophages.
Cytokines are chemicals involved in growth and regulation. They also influence bone resorption (breakdown) and formation.
These are molecular compounds given out by cells as part of the immune system.
Soluble substances secreted by cells, which have a variety of effects on other cells, e.g. Interleukin 1 (Il-1).
chemical substances that have varied effects on many cells of the body. For example, some cytokines can cause growth and activation of immune system cells.
A diverse group of protein molecules released by cells in response to activation or injury.
Any class of substances that are secreted by cells of the immune system designed to fight tumor growth.
A vast array of relatively low mass, biologically active proteins that are secreted by immune cells. Cytokines are signaling chemicals involved in various pathways that contribute to the inflammatory response.
Hormones of the immune system, a group of extracellular factors which include the interleukins, some interferons, and tumor necrosis factor. Cytokines are important in controlling local and systemic inflammatory response, and act by changing the cells that produce them, altering other cells close to them, and by affecting cells systemically.
Proteins involved in signaling between immune cells, across short distances
Proteins manufactured by leukocytes that reduce inflammation in the body and aid healing.
Hormone-like proteins secreted by many different cell types which regulate cell proliferation and function.
Chemicals made by the cells that act on other cells to stimulate or inhibit their function. Cytokines that stimulate growth are called "growth factors."
non-enzymatic proteins capable of acting as mediators in immune and inflammatory responses, or of determining a proliferative or differentiative stimulus on various cell lines.
Messenger chemicals released by T-cells that signal and mobilize other components of the immune system or other organs.
signaling molecules released from immune cells (like lymphocytes) or fat cells (adipocytes) that are typically part of the inflammation response. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor have also been implicated in insulin resistance.
A class of molecules that help regulate the activities of the immune system.
Diverse and potent chemical messengers secreted by the cells of the immune system. Cytokines are also produced by recombinant DNA technology and given to people to modulate immune response.
Proteins secreted by various types of cells. They are involved in cell to cell communication, antibody and immune interaction, and immune reactivity amplification.
Messenger substances, with which, for example, the body's own defence cells communicate with one another.
A generic term for soluble molecules which mediate interactions between cells.