A position locked by pawns. Such a position tends to lessen the strength of Bishops and other long-range pieces simply because the pawns get in their way. Knights, not being long-range pieces, can jump over other pieces and pawns and thus are very useful in such closed situations. A typical series of opening moves that lead to a closed position is 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.d5 e5 4.Nc3 d6 5.e4, etc.
A game where newcomers or outsiders are barred.
A position with few, if any, pawn trades where pieces are somewhat restricted in their movement.
a position blocked by Pawns, with few open lines
A game where the movement of pieces is restricted due to the center being under the control of pawns. (See also open game.)
A position where the pawn structure is fixed, the centre cluttered with interlocked pawns. Knights thrive in such positions, and play is generally focussed on the flanks.
A game which the position is obstructed by blocking Pawns. Such a position favors Knights over Bishops since Pawns often block diagonals.
Any chess opening that leaves the players few open files or diagonals. They often begin with the moves 1.d4 d5. See also Open game and Semi-open game. Called such because these openings tend to restrict tactical interplay of line pieces, leading to a more positional game during the opening and early middle game. See also Positional game.
A game barred to newcomers or outsiders.