The addition of one or more electrons to an atom or molecule. In the case of a molecule, protons may be involved as well, resulting in hydrogen being added.
The counterpart to oxidation, in which electrons aregained by a compound.
firing ceramic ware at high temperature in the presence of added carbon to reduce the percentage of oxygen in the kiln. This produces muted and subtle color variations, and alters the color-producing reaction of some metallic oxides used as glaze colorants.
is the gain of an electron or electrons by an atom
the gain of electrons by a species.
Zoom effect with objects being decreased in size.
A half-reaction in which electrons appear as reactants.
Oxidation in reverse.
The addition of hydrogen, removal of oxygen, or addition of elect-rons to an element or com- pound.
Firing a kiln with a reducing atmosphere; the condition in a kiln if not enough air is supplied to burn completely the carbon particles and compounds in the flame, giving a smoky atmosphere. This process causes coppers to turn red, small amounts of iron to go green, and in higher firings, iron pyrites in the clay to give a characteristic speckled look.
A gain of electrons; a decrease in oxidation state.
(die) Reduktion Chemical reaction where in the simplest case Oxygen (O2) is given off. For â†’smelting it is important that electrons are accepted. See also â†’oxidation.
Gain of electrons, as when copper is electro-plated on steel from a copper sulfate solution (opposite of "Oxidation").
Removal of oxygen from a chemical compound.
Also see Oxidation; A situation where too much fuel is introduced into the kiln to be able to burn with the available oxygen, consequently oxygen is 'stolen' from the pots in the kiln, it affects the clay and the glaze color. A good example is iron, which changes from Fe to FeO, even the tiny amount of iron present in porcelain changes it hue from a creamy color in oxidation to a slight gray blue in reduction.
a chemical process in which a substance gains electrons (the opposite of oxidation)
Any process that leads to a decrease in the oxidation number of an atom.
A redox reaction involving the addition of electrons.
A process by which a compound accepts electrons to become reduced.
Specifically, removal of oxygen from a compound. Generally, reduction signifies a decrease in an element's or an ion's positive charge.
The gain of one or more electrons or hydrogen atoms (electrons + protons) by an atom or molecule. ~ See Also: Electron, Oxidation, Proton : In cell biology, chromosome reduction refers to the halving of the chromosome number that occurs at meiosis. ~ See Also: Diploid, Haploid, Meiosis.
Loss of electrons. Also: lowering of oxidation state. See also: Oxidation
Removing the oxygen from a compound (usually endothermic).
Addition of electrons (or electron density) from an atom, most commonly due to addition of hydrogen or removal of oxygen from a molecule. The opposite of oxidation.
When a ceramic object is fired, the atmosphere in the kiln is crucial to final appearance of the piece. The term ‘reduction' indicates that the object has been fired in a kiln with a ‘reducing' atmosphere - that is one in which the amount of oxygen is restricted. In a kiln in which there is a lack of oxygen, combustion of fuels produces carbon monoxide. At high temperatures the latter combines with oxygen from oxides in the ceramic materials to form carbon dioxide. When oxygen is taken from oxides in this way, they are said to be ‘reduced'. This reduction has an effect on the color of both glazes and body materials. Most significantly on Chinese porcelains and stonewares, the reduction of iron oxide from ferric oxide (2Fe2O3) to ferrous oxide (4FeO) produces cool colors, such as grey, green and blue, essential for celadon glazes.
a reaction in which a substance gains electrons. In AMD treatment, reduction usually involves the stripping away of oxygen atoms from sulfate or metal compounds.
The relative thickness decrease in a rolling pass (the thickness reduction expressed as percentage of the initial thickness).
A reaction involving the gain of electrons, addition of hydrogen atoms, or loss of oxygen atoms. Reduction is associated with a gain of energy.
The gain of hydrogen atoms or electrons or the loss of an oxygen molecule.
A chemical reaction in which electrons are gained, or the chemical addition of hydrogen takes place.
the act of decreasing or reducing something
any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen); always occurs accompanied by oxidation of the reducing agent
Reduction is when an atom gains electrons.
The reverse of oxidation, reduction is a chemical reaction that usually involves removing an oxygen atom from a molecule, or adding hydrogen to it, or both.
Reaction in which electrons act as reactants.
A reaction in which oxygen is lost from a substance, or a chemical change in which an atom gains one or more electrons. A reduction reaction always occurs simultaneously with an oxidation reaction; that is, one substance gains oxygen (is oxidized) while another substance loses oxygen (is reduced).
Gain of hydrogen or gain of electrons.
The shifting of a compound from a higher oxidation state to a lower oxidation state, eg NO3- (nitrate) to NO2- (nitrite).
is firing with reduced oxygen in the kiln.
reaction during which an atom or an ion gains electrons given off by a reducing agent
The addition of hydrogen and the removal of oxygen - the oppposite to oxidation, but is now generalised to the inclusion of electrons to a substance by any means.
Transfer of electrons to a compound, such as oxygen. It occurs when another compound is oxidized.
The absence of oxygen in the atmosphere of a kiln during firing. The lack of oxygen can affect color in glaze or body.
The reverse of oxidation. The gaining of or acceptance of one or more electrons from another substance.
A chemical reaction in which electrons are gained. 117
The process in which a substance gains electrons and the oxidation state of some element in the substance decreases. (Segal, 965)
A reaction in which oxygen is removed from a compound
Gain of an electron by an atom, ion, or molecule; a decrease in the oxidation state.
any chemical reaction in which electrons are added.
Firing with no excess oxygen in the kiln - different colours can be obtained with some enamels dependant on the oxygen level present during the firing. Redware Red stoneware, usually unglazed and often decorated with applied motifs in relief.
Firing clay with an inadequate amount of oxygen.
a reaction in which atoms or ions of an element experience a decrease in oxidation state (meaning a gain of electrons)
Firing with reduced oxygen in the kiln. The flames suck oxygen from the glaze, changing its composition.
Chemical reaction in which electrons are taken up. Oxygen is reduced in the fuel cell.
A reaction in which electrons are added to the reactant. More specifically, the addition of hydrogen or the abstraction of oxygen.
The gain of an electron or a hydrogen atom. The gain of electrons or hydrogens in a chemical reaction.
A firing atmosphere with inadequate oxygen and large amounts of carbon (smoke or unburned fuel). What would have been Copper Oxide in an oxidation atmosphere will be pure copper in reduction. Reduction allowed the Chinese to develope the sangue de beouf red glazes and gives Raku its metalic finishes. In Indian pottery, Maria's black pieces are the result of heavy reduction; the same piece in oxidation would be terra cotta color.
In metallurgy, the electrochemical process by which purified alumina (aluminum oxide) is broken down into its constituents, freeing metallic aluminum.
A decrease in positive valence or an increase in negative valence by the gaining of electrons.
A process in which an atom or ion gains electrons.
A reaction in which there is a decrease in valence resulting from a gain in electrons. Contrast with oxidation.
a common class of chemical reaction, in which one molecule gains electron(s) from another. Reduction is electron gain, equivalent to the addition of H atoms onto the C skeleton
reaction. The cathode reaction, by which electrons are accepted from the electrochemical cell.
A chemical process that results in the acceptance of electrons by an electrode's active material.
(re duk´ shun) • Gain of electrons; the reverse of oxidation. Most reductions lead to the storage of chemical energy, which can be released later by an oxidation reaction. Energy storage compounds such as sugars and fats are highly reduced compounds. (Contrast with oxidation.)
The gain or loss of electrons due to a chemical reaction.
A reaction in which atoms or molecules either lose oxygen or gain hydrogen or elec- trons.
Reduction is the removal of oxygen or the gaining of electrons. Back to top of the page
the half of an electrochemical reaction where electrons are taken up. Reduction occurs at the cathode.
a kiln firing in which there is an intentional absence of oxygen. This type of firing produces carbon monoxide, which functions to extract oxygen from the clay and glaze, resulting in colour changes to the piece.
In analytical chemistry, the preparation of one or more subsamples from a sample of material that is to be analyzed chemically. In chemistry, reduction refers to the reaction of hydrogen with another substance or the chemical reaction in which an element gains an electron.
chemical processes in which the proportion of more electronegative substituents is decreased, or the charge is made more negative, or the oxidation number is lowered.
Chemical reaction in which a molecule gains an electron.
Refers to a glaze firing process or a glaze mixture that is best enhanced when going through this type of firing. What is actually being reduced is the quantity of oxygen that is chemically bonded to any metal oxides in the clay or glaze mixture. To bring about the removal of oxygen molecules, when the kiln temperature reaches the melting point of the glazes used the kiln atmosphere is "flooded" with combustible material, such as gas or wood, thus causing the fire to pull oxygen from the pieces being fired. The duration of the stage varies, but it can be as long as an hour or more. The removal of iron oxide in clay causes a "fluxing" (melting) action thus creating a stronger bond between clay and glaze. In the glaze mixture, reduction brings about a wide array of colors depending on the combination of materials used in the glaze. In general, reduction fired glazes tend to have what is considered warmer tones than those of oxidation glazes. Both have the potential for beautifully produced pieces. See also oxidation, firing, kiln, glaze.
A chemical reaction in which a molecule or atom gains electrons.
In scientific terms, adding a hydrogen or taking an oxygen away from a compound. Free radicals undergo reduction when they are quenched by antioxidants. The antioxidant is in turn oxidized. (See oxidation.)
Increase in the number of electrons. In the case of a cell, this term refers to the electron transfer to the active mass. During the discharging operation, NiOOH (charged positive mass of nickel-cadmium or NiMH accumulators) or lead dioxide at the positive plate is reduced to a lower oxidation state (to Ni(OH)2 or PbSO4).
Reduction occurs when the element gains electrons. IF YOU CAME HERE FROM A DIFFERENT PAGE, CLICK ON THE BACK BUTTON TO GO BACK TO THE PAGE YOU WERE VIEWING.
a chemical reaction in which an electron is donated to the reduced entity.
The chemical process in which electrons are gained and the negative valence is increased. The process of depriving a compound of oxygen.
the gain of one or more electrons by an atom, molecule, or ion.
Firing in a reducing atmosphere. This is when there is insufficient air for the flame to burn off its carbon content. The result is a smoky atmoshere that causes metallic content in the glaze and clay to change colour.
The removal of oxygen or addition of hydrogen.
Reduction is the contrary to oxidation, thus the delivery of oxygen. Chemically, reduction means absorption of electrons, since electrons are delivered in an oxidation process.
The addition of hydrogen, removal of oxygen, or addition of electrons to an element or compound.
Gain of electrons by an atom or molecule as occurs when hydrogen is added to a molecule or oxygen is removed. The opposite of oxidation.
In a narrow sense reduction means the decrease in the oxygen content, or in the increase in the hydrogen content of a substance. In a broad sense, reduction is the decrease in positive valence or the increase in negative valence of an element.