The process by which values of the normalizing (or free) parameters are determined so as to replicate the observed flow values incorporated in the social accounting matrix (SAM), assuming all the equations describing the equilibrium in the system (model) are met in the benchmark period. This process is augmented by literature search (and on occasion econometric estimation) for key model parameters, whose values are required before the calibration can proceed. In practice, due to the wide spread use of CES functions in applied models, "key" parameters are more or less synonymous with elasticities (Mansur and Whalley).
The process of developing the model parameters using observed transportation data.
(model application): Process of refining the model representation of the hydrogeologic framework, hydraulic properties, and boundary conditions to achieve a desirable degree of correspondence between the model simulation and observations of the ground-water system.
Calibration in the context of CFD simulations is defined as The process of adjusting numerical or physical modeling parameters in the computational model for the purpose of improving agreement with experimental data. (AIAA G-077-1998) Calibration has more to do with improving agreement of computational results with experimental results rather than assessing error and uncertainty. Calibration arises from uncertainty in modeling complex physical processes. It adjusts unmeasured or poorly characterized experimental parameters. One use of calibration may be the adjustment of emperical constants found within a turbulence model. While calibration improves agreement for a class of problems, it may make the code less general.
in the context of this discussion, calibration refers to the process of adjusting estimates of aquifer characteristics used in numerical ground water models. The calibration usually attempts to minimize differences between simulated and measured characteristics such as aquifer water levels.
A technique used to allow application of a general cost model to a specific set of data. This is accomplished by calculating adjustment factor(s) to compensate for differences between the referenced historical costs and the costs predicted by the cost model using default values.
The process of choosing attribute values and computational parameters so that a model properly represents the real-world situation being analyzed. For example, in pathfinding and allocation, calibration generally refers to assigning or calculating appropriate values to be entered in impedance and demand items.
The establishment of the relationship between a parameter that is easily determined and a parameter that is more difficult to determine. For example, the periods of Cepheids variables have been calibrated to reveal the absolute magnitudes, which can then be used to find distances. Thus astronomers say Capheids have been calibrated as distance indicators.
Calibration in statistics is a reverse process to regression. The calibration problem is the use of known data on the observed relationship between a dependent variable and an independent variable to make estimates of other values of the independent variable from new observations of the dependent variable.