a philosophical perspective derived from the work of Immanuel Kant which views reality as existing mainly in the mind, constructed or interpreted in terms of one's own perceptions. Note: In this perspective, an individual's prior experiences, mental structures, and beliefs bear upon how experiences are interpreted. Constructivism focuses on the process of how knowledge is built rather than on its product or object. Cp. social constructivism; transactional theory. Piaget's view that "the child must make and remake the basic concepts and logical thought forms that constitute his intelligence" (Gruber & Voneche, 1977).
The central idea of constructivism is that people construct knowledge (as opposed to knowledge being transmitted into their minds). Most people do not have a problem with this because most agree that students "interpret" their experiences in class and try to make sense of them, particularly when grappling with scientific concepts (as opposed to rote memorization of terms). Thus, the problem or difficulty is not typically with constructivism per se but with: recognizing the difference between when students are "constructing" knowledge vs. simply absorbing and regurgitating, and what constructivism implies about the types of teaching methodologies one should use.
A theory learning that claims people learn by constructing knowledge through social interactions with others.
the idea that students build up (construct) their own knowledge as they are engaged actively in the learning process; also, learning takes place within a social and cultural environment.
A philosophical position within the social sciences which asserts that human knowledge is not developed exogenously but through individual experiences and social interactions. It claims that what observation allows us to describe are in part at least constructed by the observer - the world is not fully observable. It emphasises the responsive, interactive, dialogic and ‘orchestrating' role of the evaluator because the sources of data that are privileged are seen to reside with stakeholders – as much as with studies and externally generated data. Related Terms: Positivism, Realism BACK
An approach to learning skills that proposes that learning is an active, development, and multi-dimensional process.
theory of learning that focuses on allowing students to make meaning for themselves through active learning experiences.
Theory emphasising the fact that people construct their own knowledge, and are socially influenced in all thinking and learning.
A theory of learning and knowing that holds that learning is an active process of knowledge construction in which learners build on prior knowledge and experience to shape meaning and construct new knowledge. (Lambert & Walker, 1995.)
has been defined as follows: â€œKnowledge is constructed by the learner; learning is a personal interpretation of experience; learning is active, collaborative, and situated in real world contexts; and assessment of learning is integrated within the learning context itselfâ€ ( source). See active learning.
A theoretical position in education / psychology that holds that in the process of learning, an individual constructs a view of an object through the processes of accommodation and assimilation (qv) giving rise to a cognitive structure (qv) that is unique and that guides the processes of further learning. In this way, the individual has a unique view of the world based on her own processes of learning
The theory that new knowledge is an active product of the learner integrating new information and perceptions of prior knowledge. Educational philosophies based on constructivist ideas stand in contrast with behaviorist teaching techniques, such as direct instruction.
The idea that we construct our reality mentally rather than seeing directly an objective world. This idea is validated by research in neuropsychology and relates also to general semantics.
An approach to teaching based on research about how people learn. Many researchers say that each individual "constructs" knowledge rather than receiving it from others. Constructive teaching is based on the belief that students learn best when they gain knowledge through exploration and active learning.
is a theory of knowledge which claims that knowledge is not passively received but actively constructed by the learner, and that the function of cognition is adaptive, serving to organise experience, rather than discover reality.
a theory of teaching and learning in which individuals construct knowledge through active experience, building on prior knowledge. Dialectical thinking - a debate between opposing points of view in a system of reasoned exchange between points of view. The merits of each case (thesis) are discussed and evaluated.
Theory of learning that stresses the importance of experiences, experimentation, problem solving, and the construction of knowledge.
Generally, the idea that people and human institutions are socially shaped or "constructed" and that human behavior is determined more by convention than by nature or biology. Social constructivism is one theoretical model for the use of computer networks, such as the Internet, and for educational uses of technology.
the claim that knowledge is neither already in the mind nor passively received from experience but that the mind constructs knowledge out of the materials of experience
School of human learning which believes in the need to identify current learning prior to constructing new meaning. Knowledge is seen as a mental construct that is built on and added to. Learners create an image of what the world is like and how it operates and they adapt and transform their understanding of new experiences in light of what they already '‘know''. This theory of learning has consequences for teaching and learning strategies. It means that trainers must recognize how a learner already sees the world, and how that learner believes it to operate. New information presented to the learner will be modified by what the learner already knows and believes. By starting 'where the learner is at', that is, engaging prior knowledge with present learning, the trainer assists the students to build on her understanding of the world and its workings.
a theory wherein learning is seen as an active process of knowledge construction; experience combined with reflection and social interaction allows the learner to build on prior knowledge and create their own understanding of ideas and concepts. For an introduction, with further links, see for example Ryder or Dougiamas.
(p. 67) Constructivism "..studies not only the processes of thought, but also the processes of reality creation". It".. explores the operations by which we explore our experiential world".. On p. xi, Anderson says "..according to the constructivist view, people may have not only different political opinions and religious beliefs, but different ideas of such basic matters as personal identity, time and space.".
an alternative international relations theory that hypothesizes how ideas, norms, and institutions shape state identity and interests (76)
"Based on the premise that cognition (learning) is the result of "mental construction." In other words, students learn by fitting new information together with what they already know. Also referred to as: "student-centered,""child-centered," "learner-centered," "discovery-based," "self-directed." From EdInformatics
According to Schwandt, constructivism is a "philosophical perspective interested in the ways in which human beings individually and collectively interpret or construct the social and psychological world in specific linguistic, social, and historical contexts" (1997, p.19). During the last 20 or so years, cognitive psychologists (James Wertsch, Barbara Rogoff, and Jean Lave, among many others) have found that constructivist theories of how people construct meaning are closely aligned with their observations of how people learn: knowledge is mediated by social interactions and many other features of cultural environments.
The educational view that knowledge and understanding are best retained when they are learned by active engagement with ideas rather than through rote memorization. The theory views all knowledge and understanding as the result of an individual's internal processes of construction and sense making rather than as something that can be imposed from the outside.
Theory suggesting that students learn by constructing their own knowledge, especially through hands-on exploration. It emphasizes that the context in which an idea is presented, as well as student attitude and behavior, affects learning. Students learn by incorporating new information into what they already know.
In agricultural extension, it refers to acquiring knowledge through individual experiences and cognition, translating that into personal perspectives and truths.
The theory that knowledge is an active construction built up by individuals who act within social contexts. The contexts shape and constrain but don't absolutely determine what we come to understand about ourselves and others. Construtivism focuses on the balance between the freedom of individual response and the constraint of communal participation.
This point of view maintains that people actively construct new knowledge as they interact with their environment.Everything you read, see, hear, feel, and touch is tested against your prior knowledge and if it is viable within your mental world, may form new knowledge you carry with you. Knowledge is strengthened if you can use it successfully in your wider environment. You are not just a memory bank passively absorbing information, nor can knowledge be "transmitted" to you just by reading something or listening to someone.This is not to say you can't learn anything from reading a web page or watching a lecture, obviously you can, it's just pointing out that there is more interpretation going on than a transfer of information from one brain to another.
sees learning as a dynamic process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts on their current/past knowledge and in response to the instructional situation. Constructivism implies the notion that learners do not passively absorb information but construct it themselves.
Theory that knowledge is actively developed through the cognitive processes of the individual. By engaging prior knowledge with present learning, the teacher assists the students to build on their understanding of the world and its workings. This theory is often applied in maths and science classrooms.
Theory of learning that argues that students construct their own knowledge by incorporating new information with prior knowledge. ( learn more)
A set of assumptions about the nature of human learning that guide constructivist learning theories and teaching methods. Constructivism values developmentally appropriate, teacher-supported learning that is initiated and directed by the student.