A mound of older land, usually covered by vegetation, that is surrounded by a younger lava flow.
A Hawaiian term for an island of land completely surrounded by one or more younger lava flows. A kipuka form when lava encircles a hill or a slight rise in the ground as it moves downslope or across relatively flat ground. Because they are surrounded by more recent flows, kipukas are often covered with mature vegetation.
an island of older lava that has been surrounded by more recent a'a flows
an "island of old terrane surrounded by younger lava flows) and had seemed immune to the destructive forces of Pele (the Hawaiian Volcano Goddess)
an island of vegetation surrounded by lava flows
an isolated area formed when a lava flow divides and flows around a hill or slight elevation on the pre-flow surface and reunites on the downhill side
a vegetated area surrounded by a younger lava flow
An area surrounded by a lava flow.
An older island of land, usually vegetated, that was completely surrounded by a younger lava flow. Kipukas are often formed when a lava flows splits into two arms, flows for some distance, and then rejoins.
A Kipuka is an island of land completely surrounded by one or more younger lava flows. A kipuka forms when lava flows on either side of a hill or ridge as it moves downslope or spreads from its source. Older and more weathered than their surroundings, kipukas are often covered with soil and late ecological successional vegetation that provide visual contrast as well as habitat for animals in an otherwise inhospitable environment.