Definitions for "(-1)F"
In a quantum field theory with fermions, (−1)F is a unitary, Hermitian, involutive operator which multiplies bosonic states by 1 and fermionic states by −1. This is always a global internal symmetry of any quantum field theory with fermions and corresponds to a rotation by 2Ï€. This splits the Hilbert space into two superselection sectors.