Definitions for "19th-century philosophy"
In the 18th century the philosophies of The Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing a new generation of thinkers. In the late 18th century a movement known as Romanticism sought to combine the formal rationality of the past, with a greater and more immediate emotional and organic sense of the world. Key ideas that sparked this change were evolution, as postulated by Erasmus, Darwin and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and what might now be called emergent order, such as the free market of Adam Smith.