The area of the shore that is occupied by marine organisms which are adapted to or need alternating exposure to air and wetting by submersion, splash or spray. On rocky shores, the upper limit is marked by the top of the Littorina /Verrucaria belt and the lower limit by the top of the laminarian zone (Lewis, 1964). It is divided into separate subzones, particularly marked on hard substrata. Cf. 'intertidal'.
The shallow region in a body of water which can be inhabited by rooted aquatic plants. This is dependent on the ability of light to penetrate the water. Specific animal and algae groups also inhabit this zone.
Littoral refers to the coast of an ocean or sea, or to the banks of a river, lake or estuary. It is usually used as an adjective, but may also be used as a noun. The littoral zone is defined as the area between the high water and low water marks.
Littoral combat in the military refers to operations in the Littoral area, within a certain distance of shore, including surveillance, mine-clearing and support for landing operations and other types of shift from water to ground, and back.