Definitions for "Hallmarks"
The Maker's or Sponsor's Mark, introduced 1363, identifies the silversmith, originally by means of a symbol suggestive of his name, his products or location. From the 17thC, initials or the first two letters of the craftsman's name were more common. The Duty Mark or Sovereign's Head occurs on silverware 1784-1890, when a new silver tax was imposed; the head of the reigning monarch denotes duty paid. The hallmark of britannia standard silver applied to all silver produced 1697-1720. The Lion's Head Erased appears on Britannia standard silver; on London silver it replaced the Leopard's Head, but was used as well as the town mark by other assay offices.
The authorised stamp impressed on gold or silver watches that indicate the authentcity of the precoius metals used in the watches construction.
Markings on silver and gold to show that the item has passed the assay.