Definitions for

**"INDEPENDENT VARIABLE"****Related Terms:**Dependent variable, Independent variables, Multicollinearity, Covariate, Regression analysis, Extraneous variable, Regression, Intervening variable, Variable, Latent variable, Variables, Logistic regression, Confounding variable, Multiple regression analysis, Partial correlation, Multivariate, Regression equation, Multiple regression, Covariance, Coefficient of determination, Control variable, Factor , Spurious correlation, Regression coefficient, Dummy variable, Coefficient of correlation, Analysis of covariance, Variate, Negative correlation, Serial correlation, Linear regression, Variability, Variability, Causal relationship, Correlation, Correlated, Univariate analysis, Endogenous variable, Main effect, Correlation coefficient, Spatial autocorrelation, Indicator variable, Exogenous variable, Multivariate analysis, Covariation, Autocorrelation, Bivariate analysis, Error variance, Factor analysis, Variability

A controlled variable; a variable whose value is independent of the value of another variable.

the social element whose characteristics or variations shape and determine those of the dependent variable. With a particular study, analysis, or model this variable must precede the dependent variable and should have causal power as its own occurrence or change results in the occurrence or change of the other variable.

a variable whose value may be determined freely without reference to other variables.

a variable manipulated by the experimenter to determine its effect on another, dependent, variable. (47)

A variable that is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable.

A treatment under experimental control. The researcher imposes several (at least two) different values of the independent variable on participants, and compares the results to determine whether the variable differentially affects behavior. An experiment must have at least one independent variable, and may have several.

A variable created as an input or predictor used in a model to generate the outcome (the dependent variable).

Compare with dependent variable. An independent variable that can be set to a known value in an experiment. Several independent variables may be controlled in an experiment. For example, in an experiment where the vapor pressure of a liquid is measured at several different temperatures, temperature is the independent variable and vapor pressure is the dependent variable.

In an experiment, when one factor is manipulated, a second factor responds. The independent variable is the factor that is manipulated.

variable that is manipulated, measured, or selected by the researcher in order to observe its relation to the subject's "response" (i.e. dependent variable) (Shavelson, 1996).

the variable that can cause change in other variables.

A factor, indicator, construct, or other measure that influences a dependent variable of interest or the relationship between an exposure or treatment and the dependent variable.

See regression analysis.

The variable used within a study as a possible basis for making predictions. In an actual experiment, the independent variable is manipulated by the experimenter; in a correlational study, the independent variable is observed and then used as a (potential) basis for predicting other data.

a variation (or factor) introduced by the experimenter in a systematic way so that she can determine the effect of the variation; may be quantitative or qualitative

See experiment.

A variable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher and exerts some influence on another (dependent) variable (also known as a causal variable).

In an experiment, the condition that is manipulated by the experimenter to examine its impact on the dependent variable. go to glossary index

In an experiment, the condition over which the experimenter has direct control. Compare dependent variable. (18)

A variable that may, it is believed, predict or cause fluctuation in an dependent variable.

This term is regularly used in contradistinction to "dependent variable" in regression analysis. When a variable is expressed as a function of variable, the is known as "independent variable" and as "dependent variable."

Typically a variable of interest which the experimenter manipulates.

The experimental variable that the researcher manipulates.

the stimulus variable(s) manipulated in an experiment to observe the effect upon one or more dependent variables. Cp. dependent variable.

(n) A variable for which the values are controlled by the experimenter to create a response in the model as measured by the dependent variable. Every independent variable value is paired with one or more dependent variables and represents the experimental manipulation of the model.

In a psychological experiment, the factor, experience, or treatment that is under the control of the experimenter and that is expected to have an effect on participants as assessed by changes in the dependent variable.

Variable in a statistical test that is thought to be controlling through cause and effect the value of observations in another dependent variable modeled in the test.

The primary cause or causes thought to explain the effect one is studying. The factor(s) explaining change in the dependent variable.

a variable that the researcher establishes independently, e.G. Treating Group A differently from Group B, or variations in population under study, e.G. Age, sex.

a variable that causes, or influences, another variable.

The variable that is manipulated in an experiment whose value is changed by the experimenter.

a variable that does not depend on the value of another variable; in a two-dimensional plot, the independent variable is usually plotted on the (horizontal) axis.

A variable that is controlled or fixed by the researcher. This variable may have an effect on the dependent variable. Also known as X-variable, predictor variable, explanatory variable, and factor.

as used in dealing with functions: the value that determines the value of the dependent variable (e.g. in y = () = Ï€ the area of a circle (y) depends on the radius (x); x is the independent variable and y the dependent variable).

(statistics) a variable whose values are independent of changes in the values of other variables

a cause, a dependent variable is an effect, and an intervening variable comes in between

a factor that is being independently, deliberately set by the experimenter

a factor that is manipulated in an experiment

a hypothesized cause or influence on a dependent variable

a variable that is thought to affect (cause) variations in the dependent variable

a variable that produces an effect on another

a variable the values of which can be manipulated, set, and changed without reference to any dependent variable. In instructional design the independent variables are typically those associated with program events, antecedent events, subsequent events, and arrangements.

The variable manipulated by the experimenter. It is a feature of a task given to subjects, or a manipulation of the external or internal environment. Internal environment refers to attitudes, beliefs etc..

A variable that is part of the situation that exist from which originates the stimulus given to a dependent variable. Includes treatment, state of variable, such as age, size, weight, etc.

A measure that can take on different values which are subject to manipulation by the researcher.

the condition manipulated in an experiment

The variable, often denoted , which represents values in the domain of a function. The values of the independent variable are the input values for the function.

A factor which influences another, or a factor deliberately manipulated to cause an effect.

The known variable(s) in regression analysis, sometimes also called X values. Independent variables are used to forecast an unknown variable, or Dependant variable(def).

The input or stimulus that is manipulated or observed. It is controlled by the tester

An independent variable is a variable that precedes, influences or predicts the dependent variable.

A variable in a functional relation whose value determines the value or values of other variables. For the predictive model, the independent variables will be environmental factors such as soil type, soil age, proximity to water, slope, etc.

In an experiment, the variable or condition manipulated by the researcher.

The presumed cause in a study. Also a variable that can be used to predict the values of another variable. Compare dependent variable. Some authors use the term "independent variable" for experimental research only; for nonexperimental research, they use predictor variable.

A variable believed to affect the outcome (dependent variable) of an experiment.

An exposure, risk factor, or other characteristic being observed or measured that is hypothesized to influence an event or manifestation (the dependent variable).

One of a set of measures which is used to predict a dependent variable. See regression.

In regression or correlation analysis, a variable whose value is thought to be determined by factors other than those under analysis, but which is thought to affect the value of one or more other variables (the dependent variables) in the analysis.

in an experimental setting, a variable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher. In most multivariate analyses, however, these are simply the variables used to predict an outcome (or dependent) variable. Also known as predictor variables.

The factor (or factors in the case of multiple regression) which it is hoped are related to the dependent variable and which will be used to "explain" differences among the values of the dependent variable.

Variable used to predict the value of a dependent variable. It is denoted by x in a regression equation.

The variable in a cause –and-effect hypotheses or explanation that produces change in another variable. In the “if X, then Y” mode of explanation, X is the independent variable that, given a certain value, actually causes Y, the dependent variable, to change in a particular way.

The value(s) you are manipulating is called the independent variable (also known as the “ manipulated variable”). An independent variable is the variable you have control over, what you can choose and manipulate. It is what you predict will affect the dependent variable. In some cases, you may not be able to manipulate the independent variable. The independent variable may be something that is already there and is fixed, or something you would like to evaluate with respect to how it affects something else, the dependent variable: like color, kind and time.

An independent variable is a factor whose effects are to be studied and manipulated in an experiment (i.e., exposure to market, size, and/or value risk).

An input variable from which the dependent variable can be predicted. For example, if “satisfaction with talk time” were the dependent variable, then “talk time” would be the independent variable from which satisfaction could be predicted.

Variable that is manipulated or changed in an experiment.

the manipulated variable; the variable that is changed on purpose in an experiment

One of a battery of questions assumed to explain variance in an 'outcome' variable such as overall satisfaction â€“ with CSM data these are usually individual requirements such as 'product quality'.

An independent variable is a factor that is intentionally varied by the experimenter. In a lettuce seed bioassay, the usual independent variable is the concentration of the solution to which the seeds are exposed.

The variable selected by the researcher whose value is known and whose value is systemically manipulated to determine the degree of its effect on the dependent variable. Also referred to as the treatment.

see variable.

a manipulated variable; a factor or condition that changes naturally or is intentionally manipulated by the investigator to observe the effect.

The variable which is assumed to determine the values of the dependent (response) variable. For example, blood pressure could be deemed to respond to changes in age.

a variable not influenced by or dependent on other variables in experiments (177)

The element of an experimental design that defines the single difference between the way two groups of participants are treated or the difference between two experimental conditions. For example, if we wish to study the effects of the colour of printed words (red or black) with a white background on reading spead, we could devise two conditions that are identical except for one element, namely the colour of the printed words. So, participants in the experimental condition, read a passage of text printed in red, and the control group read the same passage of text and under the same conditions but with the words printed in their usual form, black. The only difference between the two groups is the colour of the printed words. Any differences in reading speed (in this case the dependent variable) between the two groups will be caused by the colour of the printed words (assuming that both groups are identical in every other way). In practice, there will always be some differences between the two groups, even if it just the fact that the two groups are comprised of different people.

a variable in an equation that is assigned a value rather than having a value that is determined by mathematical operations on other parts of the same equation

variable independiente] the only variable to be manipulated or changed in a controlled experiment.

The explanatory or predictor variable in a study.

In regression analysis, a random variable, y, is expressed as a function of variables x1, x2,..., plus a stochastic term, the x's are known as "independent variables."

The variable over which we have control. Normally it is plotted on the horizontal or abscissa.

A variable in a statistical analysis that represents conditions or characteristics of the group under study that were not the outcome or result to be affected by the activities or program, including those representing the activity or program itself EHR/NSF Evaluation Handbook, Chapter Seven: GlossarySource web site

Presumed cause of any change in a response or dependent variable(s).

If the value of depends upon the value of or if a is usually defined in terms of b, b is called the independent variable, and it is graphed on the horizontal axis.

In the equation y = a + bx, x is the independent variable. The dependent variable is y. In other words the value of y is dependent on the quantity of x. Let's say that y is the amount of your weekly compensation you will receive from your sales position. Your employer pays a fixed salary of $250 per week plus 5% of your sales. The equation will now look like this: y = $250 + .05x, where x is your weekly sales (the independent variable). If your sales are $1,000 during the week, your compensation will be y = $250 + .05($1,000) or $300. To Top

Any of those variables of a problem, chosen according to convenience, that may arbitrarily be specified, and that then determine the other or dependent variables of the problem. The independent variables are often called the coordinates, particularly in problems involving motion in space. Dependent and independent variables can be interchanged, for example, height and pressure.

The variable under experimental control with which the changes studied in the experiment are correlated.

The independent variables (inputs or predictors) of a model are the variables used in the equation or rules of the model to predict the output (dependent) variable.

In an experimental design, the independent variable (argument of the function) is the variable that is manipulated or selected by the experimenter to determine its relationship to an observed phenomenon (the dependent variable). In such an experiment, an attempt is made to find evidence that the values of the independent variable determine the values of the dependent variable (that which is being measured). The independent variable can be changed as required, and its values do not represent a problem requiring explanation in an analysis, but are taken simply as given.

a condition subject to only minor modifications, which affects feasibility for aquaculture.

The presumed cause in a cause and effect relationship.