an upper motor neurone lesion affecting the lowermost cranial nerves (ix, x, xii). Both halves of the brain are affected.
damage to the descending pathways to the nerves (i.e. cranial nerves IX-XII) innervating the pharynx and larynx
A condition characterized by difficulties with speech, chewing and swallowing. These symptoms resemble those of bulbar palsy, but this condition is also characterized by spontaneous or unmotivated crying and laughing.