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**"Harmonics"****Related Terms:**Harmonic, Fundamental frequency, Partial, Fundamental, Pure tone, Overtone, Harmonic distortion, Sine wave, Lfo, Heterodyne, Resonant frequency, Additive synthesis, Resonance, Intermodulation, Square wave, Beats, Local oscillator, Natural frequency, Emi/rfi, Interference, Overtones, Resonator, Oscillator, Nominal frequency, Resonant, Destructive interference, Constructive interference, Harmonic analysis, Hum, Chirp, Thd, Prf, Phase noise, Phase cancellation, Sinusoidal, Total harmonic distortion, Graphic equalizer, Center frequency, Elf , Intermediate frequency, White noise, Pitch, Superheterodyne receiver, Pink noise, Crossover , Frequency counter, Cutoff frequency, Intermodulation distortion, Radio frequency interference

The doctrine or science of musical sounds.

Secondary and less distinct tones which accompany any principal, and apparently simple, tone, as the octave, the twelfth, the fifteenth, and the seventeenth. The name is also applied to the artificial tones produced by a string or column of air, when the impulse given to it suffices only to make a part of the string or column vibrate; overtones.

Another term for overtones. Tones of a higher pitch that are present in every musical sound though are not sung or played.

Certain frequencies; specifically, multiples of the fundamental frequency, at which unwanted and unusable voltages and currents are introduced into the system.

Multiples of a basic frequency. Their presence indicates a clandestine transmitter.

Additional frequencies, multiples of the fundamental, appearing in the output waveform of an alternator. (Reducing harmonics to tolerable working limits is an element of good design practice.)

Integral multiples of a puretone. The tone itself is the 1st harmonic, or fundamental frequency; twice the frequency of the tone is the 2nd harmonic; three times the frequency of the tone is the 3rd harmonic; etc.

Integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. The first harmonic is the fundamental, and the second in twice the frequency of the fundamental, etc.

Are exact frequency multiples of any cycle (or exact period fractions).

the study of musical sound

Undesired transmissions that occur at multiples of the original frequency. For example, harmonics of a station transmitting at 27 MHz (GRS) may occur at 54 MHz (frequency X 2) or 81 MHz (frequency X 3).

The frequencies generated by a distorted sinewave at multiples of its fundamental.

Integer multiples of a fundamental frequency. In the U.S. the fundamental power frequency is 60 Hz so the "third harmonic" would be 3 x 6O, or 180 Hz. These harmonic frequencies appear as "noise" or "distortion" superimposed on the fundamental wave, thereby producing a distorted waveform.

Multiples of the basic frequency. If the power frequency is 50 Hz, second harmonic is 100 Hz, third harmonic is 150 Hz, etc.

The astrological study of integral divisions of the circle by integer numbers (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 .... etc.,).

any whole-number multiple of the fundamental frequency. the set of vibration modes of an object. For a harmonic series, the natural frequencies of the modes are simple integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. (H:552)

Energy at integral multiples of the frequency of the fundamental signal. Normally expressed as THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) but can be specified for harmonics of interest in either a percentage of or decibels below the power level of the fundamental frequency signal.

Frequencies which are an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. Magnetic field strength.

Also called overtones, these are frequencies that are multiples of the original or "fundamental" frequency. Harmonics extend in frequency beyond the audible range.

In addition to the radio output at its principal frequency, a transmitter produces lesser bursts of power at multiples of that frequencty. These diminishing outputs are called harmonics (see also: 'Spurious Emissions')

A set of waves whose individual frequency is a whole-number multiple of that of another wave.

the bell-like, upper tonal components of a note, relative to the fundamental, most easily heard at certain points on the fingerboard by lightly attacking a string directly over a fret but without fretting it.

Whole number multiples of the frequency that determines the timbre recognition of an instrument's sound.

Voltages and currents at frequencies other than 60 Hz (or 50 Hz where applicable) that cause heating and other detrimental effects in the power system.

Harmonics are voltage or current components which operate at integral multiples of the fundamental frequency of a power system (50 or 60 Hertz). Harmonic currents have the effect of distorting the shape of the voltage wave form from that of a pure sine wave.

A sinusoidal component of a periodic wave or quantity having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. For example, a component of the frequency, which is twice the fundamental frequency, is called the second harmonic.

of a cycle are other cycles whose frequencies are exact multiples of the original frequency. Therefore the periods are exact fractions. For example, a 5.93 year cycle is the 2nd harmonic of an 11.86 year cycle.

Distortion of the mains power wave-form. Can cause heating of motors and problems in electronic equipment.

Besides a root note or tone, all sound produces sympathetic overtones of the original note or tone, called harmonics.

Also called overtones, these are vibrations at frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental. Harmonics extend without limit beyond the audible range. They are characterized as even-order and odd-order harmonics. A second-order harmonic is two times the frequency of the fundamental; a third order is three times the fundamental; a fourth order is four times the fundamental; and so forth. Each even-order harmonic: second, fourth, sixth, etc.-is one octave or multiples of one octave higher than the fundamental; these even-order overtones are therefore musically related to the fundamental. Odd-order harmonics, on the other hand: third, fifth, seventh, and up-create a series of notes that are not related to any octave overtones and therefore may have an unpleasant sound. Audio systems that emphasize odd-order harmonics tend to have a harsh, hard quality.

All alternating current, which is not absolutely sinusoidal, is made up of a fundamental and a certain number of current harmonics, which are the cause of its deformation (distortion) when compared to the theoretical sine wave. For each current harmonic of order n and an RMS value In, there is a voltage harmonic with an RMS value Un. If Zsn is the voltage source output impedance for the harmonic of the nth order, then: Un = Zsn x In.

The component frequencies of a sound that give it a certain character, and which are sometimes perceived as overtones within the sound. ( Wikipedia)

Multiples of the fundamental sine wave frequency. A 50Hz sine wave has a second harmonic at 100Hz, a third harmonic at 150Hz, a fourth harmonic at 200Hz, a fifth harmonic at 250Hz and so on. The timbre of a musical instrument is defined by the complex mix of harmonics overlain on each note. In amplifiers, harmonic distortion is the addition of unwanted harmonics to the signal. Total Harmonic Distortion is the summation of all harmonic distortions.

Harmonics are sinusoidal voltages or currents having frequencies that are integer multiples of the frequency at which the supply system is designed to operate. Harmonic distortion originates is the nonlinear characteristics of device and loads on the power system. The levels are described by the complete harmonic spectrum with magnitudes and phase angles of each individual harmonic component. The IEEE Standard 519-1992 provides guidelines for harmonic current and voltage distortion levels on transmission and distribution circuits.

Multiples of an original frequency that add to and modify the original frequency. A pure sine wave is free of harmonics. When harmonics occur in electronic signals, it adds distortion to the original signal, causing undesirable results.

In addition to the fundamental frequency of a vibration there are also superimposed additional frequencies at 2x, 3x, 4x etc in theory all the way to infinity! The 2nd harmonic is 1 octave higher at twice the frequency. Middle ‘C' on a piano is at 261.626 Hz.

Secondary frequencies that are whole-number multiples of the fundamental frequency of a sound. The harmonics combine with the fundamental to produce the complex sound wave, giving timbre or quality to the total sound as perceived.

are integer multiples of a fundamental frequency (2/n, where n is length of the data record). For example, the seasonal cycle is often described by the first 3 or 4 annual harmonics with n = 365 days. [pg 113, 5; pg 325-332, 3

A multiple of a fundamental frequency: Fundamental or 1st harmonic, times 2 = 2nd harmonic, times 3 = 3rd harmonic….

Vibrations of frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental .

Multiples of the AC power fundamental frequency. When added to the fundamental frequency, a distorted waveform is produced.

Those vibrations which are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency.

Current or voltage waveforms at frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental frequency, e.g. a 3rd order harmonic is 180 hertz for a 60 hertz fundamental frequency system.

Double frequency of original signal mixed together. First harmonic is original signal, second harmonic is doubled frequency etc. Harmonics are mainly important because some of them may appear in badly done interpolation. Also using same sound with doubling frequency and mixing it together can produce some cool sounds.

Overtones with various frequencies in comparison to a fundamental or ground note, which taken together produce timbre.

The term for zodiacal aspects that describe the energy levels or vibrational frequencies associated with aspects. An aspect, derived from the division of a circle (360°) by a whole number, and its multiples share the same frequency and therefore operate at similar energy levels. For example, division of 360° by four yields 90°, a square. The square is a fourth harmonic aspect as are its multiple, 180° (opposition) and 270°. Several harmonics may merge in a single aspect. The square is a multiple of the semi-square (45°), an eighth harmonic aspect; the square's primary harmonic is four (sometimes written 1/4) and its sub-harmonic is eight (2/8, second of the eighth harmonic). The opposition's primary harmonic is two (1/2 x 360°= 180°); its sub-harmonics are four (2/4, second in the series of fourth harmonics), six (3/6, third of the sixth harmonic), eight (4/8, fourth of the eighth harmonic), etc.

Multiples of a fundamental frequency, usually giving the sound a flavor, color, or unique identity: overtones.

The frequencies contained in a complete waveform, which are integer muliples of the repetition frequency (fundamental).

**Related Terms:**Dissonance, Tone, Timbre, Dissonant, Hammer-on, Overtones, Tremolo, Vibrato, Twang, Thrum, Consonance, Concert pitch, Electric guitar, Acoustic guitar, Strings, Harmonize, Plunk, Jangle, Action, Monotone , Kazoo, Voice, Skirl, Snap, Pitch, Aërophone, Clarion, Vocal , Just intonation, Cacophony, Slide, Zither, Drone, Dynamics, Bass guitar, Temperament, Vocalization, Mute, Resonator, Violin, Harmony, Chord , Discord , Intonation, Absolute pitch, Chime, Tune, Forte, Bass, Tuning

higher and quieter sounds mixed together (not heard separately)

Chime-like sounds achieved in two ways: 1) natural harmonics - by touching a string at any equidistant division of the string length (typically 5th, 7th, and 12th fret), directly above the fret with left hand, and striking hard with the right-hand fingers or pick near the bridge where there is more string resistance; or 2) artificial harmonics - touching a string with the index finger of the right hand twelve frets higher than any fretted note and plucking the string with either the thumb or third finger of the right hand.

the vibration of an air column or string is divided into fractions (for example, two halves, three thirds, etc) which sound simultaneously to produce sound

Individual pure sounds that are part of any musical tone. In string instruments they are produced by lightly touching a vibrating string at a certain point.

An annoying vibration and audible noise which can cause discomfort for the occupants. This is a big issue for car and tyre manufacturers at the design stage.

The term for the Aspects describing the relationship between two points, bodies or Signs.