The suffix -ness, which goes back to Old English, continues to have a productive life. It commonly attaches to adjectives in order to form abstract nouns, such as artfulness and destructiveness. The suffix -ness also forms nouns from adjectives made of participles, such as contentedness and willingness. It can also form nouns from compound adjectives, such as kindheartedness and straightforwardness. The suffix -ness can even be used with phrases: matter-of-factness.