Definitions for "Scholastics"
Catholic philosophers, usually monks, who dominated western philosophy from St Augustine in the 4th century until the early 16th Century, when Descartes started the process of overthrowing them. St Aquinas is considered to be the greatest of them.
"schoolmen", they developed a method of thinking, reasoning, and writing in which questions were raised and authorities cited on both sides of the question. (p. 358)