considered the major nerve for the swallowing center, Motor Component innervates the 3 salivary glands in the mouth. The saliva from these glands mixes with the chewed up food to form a bolus. Has motor, sensory, and autonomic nervous system nerve fibers. It, along with the vagus (CN. X), provides some innervation to the upper pharyngeal constrictor muscles (Zemlin, 1997). Innervates the stylopharyngeus muscle which elevates the larynx and pulls it forward during the pharyngeal stage of the swallow. This action also aids in the relaxation and opening of the cricopharyngeus muscle. Sensory components mediate all sensation, including taste, from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue. Also carries sensation from the velum and the superior portion of the pharynx. A lesion may impair the gag reflex unilaterally (Zemlin, 1997). graduated stick: may be used instead of a pacing board. Graduated sticks have bumps on them at regular intervals and the patient must touch one bump for every syllable. Metronomes can also be used to slow speech rate. Patients are taught to produce one syllable per "tick" on the metronome.