A rate from a city that is not a seaport to a foreign city, via another city that is a seaport, with the steamship line or NVOCC issuing a bill of lading from the original city and taking responsibility for the cargo all the way. Example: Phoenix to Tokyo via Los Angeles.
A cargo movement in which the water carrier provides a through service between an inland point and the port of load/discharge. The carrier is responsible for cargo and costs from origin on to destination. Also known as IPI or Through Service.
A landbridge movement in which cargo originating/destined to an inland point is railed or trucked to/from the water port for a shipment to/from a foreign country.