Repeat sequences and approximate repeats occur throughout the DNA of higher organisms (mammals). For example, the Alu sequences of length about 300 characters, appear hundreds of thousands of times in Human DNA with about 87% homology to a consensus Alu string. Some short substrings such as TATA-boxes, poly-A and (TG)* also appear more often than by chance. Repeat sequences may also occur within genes, as mutations or alterations to those genes. Repetitive sequences, especially mobile elements, have many applications in genetic research. DNA transposons and retroposons are routinely used for insertional mutagenesis, gene mapping, gene tagging, and gene transfer in several model systems.