the recognized male companion, `cavalier servente,' of a married woman. Taddeo describes Lindoro as Isabella's cicisbeo in the recitative before the duet Ai capricci della sorte, then tells Haly in the first act finale that the Turk is becoming one. In the second act he confides to Lindoro (whom he does not recognize) that although Isabella was at one time still in love with her first lover, Lindoro, there is now no cicisbeo who could separate her from her Taddeo. The implication is quite clear, though it is never explicitly stated, that Taddeo is in fact Isabella's husband, and that he may also be a pappataci! The curious and ambiguous role of the cicisbeo in Italian society in the early nineteenth century is discoursed upon at length in Victorien Sardou's play Tosca, in a scene excised from the opera.