Polymorphonuclear leukocyte or PMN. Represent 50% of the white blood cells. Are bacteriocidal and the first cells to migrate to sites of inflammation (Lecture: Innate Immunity and Inflammation I, 2/19/02)
Neutrophils phagocytize and kill microorganisms. They also initiate and modify the acute inflammatory process, cause tissue damage and are cytotoxic. Production and storage in the bone marrow, margination of cells in the capillary beds, and the demands of peripheral tissues affect the numbers of circulating neutrophils.
A leukocyte (white blood cell) produced in the bone marrow that circulates in the blood stream. Neutrophils move out of blood vessels into infected tissue in order to attack a foreign substance (bacteria). Normally a serious bacterial infection causes the body to produce an increased number of neutrophils, resulting in a higher white blood cell count. Neutrophils perform their function partially through phagocytosis, a process by which they â€œeatâ€ other cells and foreign substances. The pus in an abscess is made up of mostly neutrophils.
White blood cells with a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral (non-acid/non-basic) dyes. Its name is derived from this last quality. It is both a granulocyte and a phagocyte.
This blood cell is the main cell that combats infections. Often, it is not present in sufficient quantities in patients with acute leukemia or after chemotherapy, which increases their susceptibility to infection.
A type of white blood cell and one of the first immune cells to arrive during the acute inflammatory response to a spinal cord injury. Neutrophils manufacture enzymes, which help kill bacteria; but in the brain and spinal cord they are lethal to nerve cells.
A mobile cell made in large numbers in the bone marrow and released into the blood. They can be recruited into the lungs and other tissues by specific substances released at sites of inflammation to help to protect against infections. Neutrophils are capable of releasing large amounts of destructive enzymes that can damage the interstitium and cells of the tissue, especially when levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin are very low. In the lungs, this process can lead to emphysema. Smoking results in increased recruitment of neutrophils and other molecular events that damage the tissue and result in emphysema. However, neutrophils represent a "double-edged sword" because they are vital to the normal host defense mechanisms.
Also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes because they are white blood cells with a multi-lobed nucleus. Neutrophils combat infection by internalizing and destroying disease causing organisms such as bacteria.