A retrospective study is a study that looks backwards in time. When we study a disease that takes a long time to appear, we may need to use a retrospective study. A retrospective study may be one in which doctors examine the medical charts of patients that have a disease to find out if certain medications had any effect on them - they were treated in the past and therefore, the doctors are studying the patients retrospectively.
A study in which the outcomes in a group of people are analyzed after the outcomes have occurred, by looking back in time from the present. One example is a study in which the medical histories of a group of people who all have the same condition are examined, to determine what similarities there may be in their medical backgrounds. (See also prospective study.)
A clinical study, such as the CARING trial, in which patients are recruited after the clinical outcome is known. This type of study is particularly useful when examining rare occurrences, such as a dangerous reaction experienced by only a small percentage of patients being treated with a drug.
A study that looks backward (retro) into patient records or case histories with the goal of making observations and drawing conclusions about patients or a disease or treatment all the patients had in common. For example, researchers may look at case histories of all patients at a particular hospital during the last 5 years.
a study in which investigators select groups of patients that have already been treated and analyze data from the events experienced by these patients. These studies are subject to bias because investigators can select patient groups with known outcomes. (Contrast with prospective study.)
in analytical epidemiology, a study which is used to identify individuals who have a disease (cases) and individuals who do not have the disease (controls). The data are taken from past records or survey data. Something which is present in cases but not in controls is connected with the disease. See also case-control study.
a study based on the medical records of patients, looking backward in time at events that happened in the past. A retrospective cohort study uses the records of a specific group of patients. Contrast with prospective study.
Research design used to test aetiological hypotheses in which inferences about exposure to the putative causal factor(s) are derived from data relating to characteristics of the persons or organisms under study or to events or experiences in their past: the essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or other outcome condition of interest, and their characteristics and past experiences are compared with those of other, unaffected persons. Persons who differ in the severity of the disease may also be compared. RT case control study. Last, 1988
A study that compares two groups of people: those with the disease or condition under study (cases) and a very similar group of people who do not have the disease or condition (controls). Researchers study the medical and lifestyle histories of the people in each group to learn what factors may be associated with the disease or condition. For example, one group may have been exposed to a particular substance that the other was not. Also called a case-control study.
In a retrospective study you work backwards from a condition (eg. disease) to the causal factor. For example, how many of those first-time prisoners who re-offended within a year of release served sentences at a liberal prison as opposed to a traditional prison? See also Prospective study.
Research that relies on recall of past data or on previously recorded information. Often, this type of research is considered to have limitations because the number of variables cannot be controlled - and because peopleâ€™s memories are fallible.
Research that relies on recall of past data, or on previously recorded information. Often this type of research is considered to have limitations, because the number of variables that cannot be controlled, and because memory is not infallible.