When epidemiologists conduct studies to evaluate disease patterns or relationships, they often uncover associations between exposures and disease. Hypothesis testing is the epidemiological process by which researchers ask the question: " Does the association that I have observed represent a causal relationship between the putative exposure and the disease?"
Statistical hypothesis testing is formalized as making a decision between rejecting or not rejecting a null hypothesis, on the basis of a set of observations. Used to determine whether the observed differences can be attributable to chance alone.
The process of accepting or rejecting a hypothesis. Also see hypothesis.