A controlled variable; a variable whose value is independent of the value of another variable.
the social element whose characteristics or variations shape and determine those of the dependent variable. With a particular study, analysis, or model this variable must precede the dependent variable and should have causal power as its own occurrence or change results in the occurrence or change of the other variable.
a variable whose value may be determined freely without reference to other variables.
a condition subject to only minor modifications, which affects feasibility for aquaculture.
The presumed cause in a cause and effect relationship.