Referring to PVC (vinyl) film, calendered film is manufactured on a calender, which consists of a set of oil heated cylinders. On the calender, the sheet is formed when the cylinders distribute and press the PVC into a sheet (or film) of the required thickness. Calendered film is generally thicker (typically 4 mil) and less expensive than cast vinyl. However, it sometimes tends to shrink when subjected to heat.
A film or paper manufactured by passing solid sheets of material between two polished rollers under high pressure. Mesh is also modified by this process. The rollers flatten the knuckles on one side to reduce Theoretical Ink Volume and hence film thickness.