(literally, falsely written) a title for various pseudonymous or anonymous Jewish writings of the third century B.C. to the second century A.D. not found in the Hebrew Bible or Apocrypha. James H. Charlesworth's recently published English translation of the Pseudepigrapha, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 2 vols. (Doubleday, 1983-1985), includes fifty-two documents. Some of the most important of these for gospel studies are Enoch, Jubilees and The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, portions of all of which have been found in Hebrew or Aramaic at Qumran. - a conjectured Greek work believed by some scholars to be the source of Matthew and Luke's non-Markan sayings. The designation "Q" is usually thought to be an abbreviation of the German Quelle, meaning "source"; however, the designation may have been chosen because Markan material was once thought to be from Peter, or P, and thus some second source would be Q. - an abbreviation used in rabbinic literature for the honorific titles, "Rabbi," "Rabban," "Rav" and "Rabbenu."