SODIUM places the required number of sodium ions around a system of electric charges, e.g., the atoms of a biological macromolecule . The ions are placed in the nodes of a cubic grid in which the electrostatic energy achieves the smallest values. The energy is re-computed after placement of each ion. A simple Coulombic formula is used for the energy.
A common metallic element of the alkali group, in nature always occuring combined, as in common salt, in albite, etc. It is isolated as a soft, waxy, white, unstable metal, so highly reactive that it combines violently with water, and to be preserved must be kept under petroleum or some similar liquid. Sodium is used combined in many salts, in the free state as a reducer, and as a means of obtaining other metals (as magnesium and aluminium) is an important commercial product. Symbol Na (Natrium). Atomic weight 22.990. Specific gravity 0.97.
An ion found in natural water supplies, and introduced to water in the ion exchange water softening process. Sodium compounds are highly soluble, and do not react with soaps or detergents.