The class of ancient Hebrew writings which deal reflectively with general ethical and religious topics, as distinguished from the prophetic and liturgical literature, and from the law. It is comprised chiefly in the books of Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiasticus, Ecclesiastes, and Wisdom of Solomon. The "wisdom" (Hokhmah) of these writings consists in detached sage utterances on concrete issues of life, without the effort at philosophical system that appeared in the later Hellenistic reflective writing beginning with Philo Judæus.
A type of literature that exists both in the Old Testament and in contemporaneous literature written by neighboring cultures that focuses on promoting ethical standards, primarily for the purpose of preserving honor and personal advancement. Some of these books, such as Job and Ecclesiastes, also deal with the philosophical and theological motivations for ethical behavior.
any of the biblical books (Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus) that are considered to contain widom