Short for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, also commonly known as GERD, it is a chronic condition which afflicts many asthmatics. The esophageal flap which seals the stomach from the lower esophagus does not remain closed when it should, particularly when the patient is reclining, and this allows stomach acid and its fumes, and partially-digested contents to escape upwards through the esophagus. This material can be aspirated into the lungs, triggering an asthma attack. Another relationship exists whereby the processes that work the muscles in the lower esophagus to move the regurgitated contents back into the stomach, also stimulate bronchoconstriction. Effective treatment of GERD in non-allergic asthmatics can significantly improve or even eliminate their asthma symptoms. Clues that GERD may be aggravating asthma include: 1) asthma that occurs for the first time during adulthood 2) asthma that gets worse after meals, lying down or exercise and 3) asthma which gets worse at night. More info on reflux in children.
The movement of stomach contents up into the esophagus. Nearly universal among infants. If excessive, reflux can cause apnea, bradycardia, pneumonia. May be treated with medications, including Reglan and Zantac.
This term usually refers to the regurgitation of stomach contents into the esophagus. This causes heartburn and can even cause a laryngitis-like sensation. Patients with esophageal reflux are at increased risk of developing esophageal cancer.
The backward flow of urine from the bladder into the ureter. This usually occurs when the valve mechanism fails to develop properly from birth. The condition is related to urinary tract infections, particularly in girls.
An abnormal backward or return flow of fluid in a body passage due to failure of the passage's muscle to close fully. One type is the back flow of urine from the bladder into one or both ureters. Persistent urinary reflux may lead to kidney damage.
Backward flow of urine. Also referred to as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). An abnormal condition in which urine backs up from the bladder into the ureters and occasionally into the kidneys, raising the risk of infection.
Backward flow. In the legs this term refers to backward flow of blood allowed when a one-way vein valve malfunctions. Reflux can result in varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency and telangectasias ( spider veins) when the valves inside very tiny veins do not work properly.
During distillation some of the heavier flavours with comparatively high boiling points condense from vapour back into liquid form before leaving the still and are redistilled. This is known as reflux, and the greater the degree of reflux the lighter and 'cleaner' the spirit produced. Short, squat stills produce little reflux, compared to tall, slender stills. The angle at which the lyne arm is attached also affects the levels of reflux.
Vapour high in alcohol that returns to the still for further distillation. In pot stills the shape of the Lyne arm can be the reason; in continuous stills it is a method of controlling the final spirit.