A concentration camp opened in 1937 on the Ettersberg hillside overlooking Weimar, Germany. The first German and Austrian Jewish prisoners arrived in 1938; German and Austrian Gypsy prisoners were deported there after July 1938. During the war, nearly 65,000 of Buchenwald's 250,000 prisoners perished; others died in its more than 130 satellite labor camps. Buchenwald was one of the few major camps where prisoners rebelled in the days preceding liberation by units of the U.S. Army on April 11, 1945.
concentration camp established in 1937 between Frankfurt and Leipzig in Germany. While it was not a major extermination center, it was equipped with gas chambers and crematoria. More than 100,000 prisoners died there.