Treaty Organization Formal name for Warsaw Pact. Military alliance of communist countries founded in 1955, with headquarters in Moscow. The Soviet minister of defense is traditionally the supreme commander of Warsaw Pact forces. Members are Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
Pact Political-military alliance founded in 1955 as a counterweight to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Members in 1989 included Bulgaria, Czechoslavakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union. Has served as the Soviet Union's primary mechanism for keeping political and military control over Eastern Europe.
The Nazis forced the sizeable Jewish population of this Polish city to live in the restricted area of the Warsaw ghetto. Starting in July 1942, the Nazis went further, deporting the hundreds of thousands of Jews in the ghetto to the Treblinka concentration camp to die. In April 1943 about 750 Jews fought back the Germans for almost a month. In January 1945, the USSR captured Warsaw from the Germans.