Involving more than two nations or parties. Commonly refers to treaties, trade agreements, or organisations, such as the World Bank (WB), International Monetary Fund (IMF) or World Trade Organisation (WTO). Multilateral financial institutions, (IMF, WB, development banks), are funded and controlled by the wealthier industrialised nations and give loans to developing countries for specific projects (hydroelectric dams, pipelines, industrial development, etc.). These loans are often granted with “conditionals,” such as restructuring, privatisation of public services or liberalisation of trade and investment controls.
Loans from international organisations, including loans form World Bank and regional development banks. Excludes loans from funds administered by an international organisation on behalf of a single donor Government.