In healthcare the term is used in two ways. To refer to a hospital patient accommodated in a different ward from that specialising in the relevant medical diagnosis. The term may be used in the examination of data where results fall well outside the pattern for the majority of NHS Trusts with similar units.
values in a set of data that are more than 1.5 times the interquartile range above the upper quartile or below the lower quartile
Are probabilistically remote events. Often viewed as statistically independent as well. Various techniques can test if actual data differ in a statistically significant manner from the benchmark or normal distribution. Also, independence assumptions can be tested to see if they are accurate representations of the underlying processes.