The ceremony of Royal Assent is the last stage in the legislative process. It is one of Parliament's oldest proceedings. Royal Assent takes place in the Senate Chamber and is given by the Governor General or the Governor General's deputy (the Chief Justice of Canada or another justice of the Supreme Court of Canada), with Members of the House of Commons present. Once a bill has received Royal Assent it can become law. Alternatively, Royal Assent may be signified by a written declaration by the Governor General or the Governor General's deputy.
A bill passed by the House of Representatives becomes law on being given the Royal Assent by being signed by the Sovereign as Head of State or by the Governor-General as the Sovereign's representative.
The approval, given by a representative of the Crown, of a bill passed by the House of Commons and Senate. Royal Assent makes the bill into an Act of Parliament. Royal Assent is given in the Senate Chamber, usually by a deputy of the Governor General in the presence of MPs and Senators. Since 2002, Royal Assent may now be done in writing without ceremony.
The Royal assent is The Queen's agreement to make a Bill into an Act of Parliament. The Queen has the right to refuse Royal assent but nowadays is largely a formality. The last time that the Royal assent was refused was in 1708, when Queen Anne refused her assent to a Bill for settling the militia in Scotland.
The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. While the power to withhold Royal Assent was once exercised often, it is almost never exercised under modern constitutional conventions. The power remains as one of the reserve powers of the monarch.
The granting, reserving or withholding of the Royal Assent was one of the key roles, and potentially one of the key powers, possessed by the Governor-General of the Irish Free State. Until it was granted, no bill passed by the Oireachtas (comprised of the DÃ¡il — Chamber of Deputes — and the Seanad — Senate —) could complete its passage of enactment and become law.