The study of spatial relationships between geographic features by using the processes of modeling, examination and interpreting, for the purpose of evaluating, estimating, predicting and understanding these relationships. Available methods in a GIS for spatial analysis include overlay operations, classification, measurement, network display, and proximity structure.
Spatial analysis is the process of applying analytical techniques to geographically-referenced data sets to extract or generate new geographical information. Spatial analysis may be used to model complex geographical interactions, and is useful for investigating site suitability and predicting future events. Although the overall analytical technique may be complex, it is usually a combination of simple techniques applied in the appropriate order.
Methods used to explore the spatial relationships between features both real and theoretical. Process of extracting or creating new information about a set of geographic features; techniques to determine the distribution of a spatial feature(s); and the relationships between two or more features, the location of, proximity to, and orientation of these features in space. Study of the locations and shapes of geographic features and the relationships between them.
The process of modeling, examining, and interpreting model results. Spatial analysis is useful for evaluating suitability and capability, for estimating and predicting, and for interpreting and understanding. There are four traditional types of spatial analysis: topological overlay and contiguity analysis, surface analysis, linear analysis, and raster analysis.
Spatial analysis refers to the formal techniques used in various fields of research which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties. The phrase properly refers to a vast group of techniques, many still in their early development, using different analytic approaches and used in fields as diverse as astronomy, with its studies of the placement of the galaxies in the cosmos, to chip fabrication engineering, with its use of 'place and route' algorithms to build complex wiring structures. The phrase is often used in a more restricted sense to describe techniques applied to analysis at the human scale, most notably in the analysis of geographic data.