The most ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, roughly contemporary with ancient Egypt. A non-Caucasian culture, it was where cuneiform (wedge-shaped) writing on clay tablets was invented. It became the Babylonian culture.
A region in the southern part of ancient Mesopotamia. The Sumerians appeared around 5000 B.C.; the civilization was made up of independent walled city-states, and declined around 2350 B.C. with the rise of the Akkadian Empire. Sumerian culture was revived at the very end of the 3rd milenium BC. during the 'Third Dynasty of Ur' after which time the Old Babylonian culture ruled Mesopotamia. However, the Sumerian writing system (cuneiform) was used throughout the Ancient Near East for another 2,000 years.
Sumer (or Å umer) was one of the early civilizations of the Ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term "Sumerian" applies to all speakers of the Sumerian language. Sumer together with Ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley Civilization is considered the first settled society in the world to have manifested all the features needed to qualify fully as a "civilization".