A family of research methodologies in which teachers pursue action (or change) and research (or understanding) at the same time and investigate their own teaching or other activity related to their work. They are thus directly involved in the actions that are being researched, as well as more likely to make useful changes in those actions. In most of its forms it is participative as, among other reasons, change is usually easier to achieve when those affected by the change are involved. See also Critical incident (technique); Reflective teacher
A multi-stage type of research, in which a problem is researched, changes are made, the problem is researched again, more changes are made, and so on until the problem is solved.
A participatory, democratic process concerned with developing practical knowledge in the pursuit of worthwhile human purposes, grounded in a participatory worldview, which is currently still emerging. It seeks to bring together action and reflection, theory and practice, in participation with others, in the pursuit of practical solutions to issues of pressing concern to people, and more generally the flourishing of individual persons and their communities.