The variation of the concentration of a chemical substance in solution through some linear path; also called concentration gradient; -- usually measured in concentration units per unit distance. Concentration gradients are created naturally, e.g. by the diffusion of a substance from a point of high concentration toward regions of lower concentration within a body of liquid; in laboratory techniques they may be made artificially.
An expression of slope or an angle of slope. Gradient may be expressed as a fraction or percentage, for example, 1/50 (1 in 50) metres indicates that the elevation changes (rises or falls) by one metre in a horizontal distance of 50 metres (or a 2% grade).
Maximum rate of change of a quantity against a horizontal distance. This value can be expressed as a ratio, decimal, percentage, or tangent of the angle of inclination. Gradient measured along a specific direction is referred to as a direction gradient.
The grade, pitch, incline or slope of real property. Gradation or gradient can be measured and is applicable when engineering a foundation system or estimating the probability of potential flood hazards.
A part of a surface feature of the Earth that slopes upward or downward; the angle of slope, as of a stream channel or of a land surface, generally expressed by a ratio of height versus distance, a percentage or an angular measure from the horizontal.
Informally this connotes the changing of some property over space or time, e.g. there is a gradient in the density of the atmosphere as one proceeds vertically upward or a gradient in SST as one travels from the equator to the poles. Formally, the gradient is the result of a gradient operator operating on some scalar quantity. The gradient of some scalar quantity can be mathematically expressed as where is the gradient operator and ,, and the component unit vectors and differential operators in a Cartesian coordinate system. See Dutton (1986).
the angle of incline from the horizontal. gradients may be indicated as a ratio such as 1:2 meaning 1 foot of vertical to 2 feet of horizontal; or as a percentage, 10%, meaning 10 feet vertical to 100 feet horizontal; or as a decimal of horizontal unit, such as slope =0.025 . By formula G=D/L (gradient equals difference in elevation divided by length of run between points
The rate of change of a quantity with distance in a specified direction is the gradient of the quantity in that direction. When the term gradient is used without specifying the direction, it is taken to mean the rate of change of the quantity in question in the direction of greatest rate of change.
The change in a property over a certain distance. For example, lead can accumulate in surface soil near a road due to automobile exhaust. As you move away from the road, the amount of lead in the surface soil decreases. This change in the lead concentration with distance from the road is called a gradient.
The vertical slope of the conduit or channel. Usually measured in terms of percent or horizontal to vertical ratio. e.g. 1 in 50 equates one unit vertically to 50 units horizontally. In percentage terms this is equal to a gradient of 2.0% (2 vertically to 100 horizontally).
The gradient is the rate of change (i.e. magnitude of first derivative) at a point. Here it specifically refers to the rate at which the brightness temperatures change with respect to distance. For the swath data the gradient at a specific sample is approximated by taking the geometric mean of the Tb difference divided by distance for the adjacent samples along scan and across scan. For the gridded data it's the same except the adjacent column and row are used.
In magnetic surveys, the gradient is the change of the magnetic field over a distance, either vertically or horizontally in either of two directions. Gradient data is often measured, or calculated from the total magnetic field data because it changes more quickly over distance than the total magnetic field, and so may provide a more precise measure of the location of a source. See also analytic signal.
(1) A measure of SLOPE ( SOIL- or water-surface) in meters of rise or fall per meter of horizontal distance. (2) More general, a change of a value per unit of distance, e.g. the gradient in LONGSHORE TRANSPORT causes EROSION or ACCRETION. (3) With reference to winds or currents, the rate of increase or decrease in speed, usually in the vertical; or the curve that represents this rate.
A function in graphic software that allows the user to fill an object/image with a smooth transition of colors, for example a dark blue, gradually becoming lighter or red, gradually becoming orange, then yellow.
A gradient is a gradual transition between two or more colors. Gradients are usually applied as either a linear or a radial fill. A linear fill gradient causes the color blend to flow from the first color to the next in a straight line. For example: An image can have a blue top that gradually blends into a green bottom. A radial fill gradient causes the color blend to flow from the center of the first color to the next in a circular pattern surrounding the point selected. For example: An image can have an orange center that gradually blends into a green field surrounding it.
A smooth gradation from one color to another. Options for gradients are available on the Control Palette (Fill Style)when ever the Flood Tool is selected. Using the flood tool fills the selected area with a gradient. Gradients can be rendered in different patterns such as radial, sun burst or linear.
A graphic effect consisting of a gradual change in color. Create gradients in MovieWorks Paint by selecting a color; selecting the Paint Bucket and dragging a short distance in the direction you want the gradient to flow.
An image effect achieved by blending two colors. Most graphics software have a tool that allows you to select two colors and then "drag" a gradient. One side of the image's background contains the first color in pure form, which progressively belnds into the second color, then ends with the second color in pure form.
Pressure difference...the term "gradient" is used to specify the difference in blood pressure before and after a blockage or stenosis. The gradient is a pressure difference (calculated by subtracting the higher pressure before a blockage from the lower pressure beyound the blockage). The severity of a blockage and the impact on circulation hemodynamics can be estimated by the magnitude of the gradient. This is particularly useful in estimating the severity of obstructive heart valve conditions.
1. The space rate of decrease of a function. The gradient of a function in three space dimensions is the vector normal to surfaces of constant value of the function and directed toward decreasing values, with magnitude equal to the rate of decrease of the function in this direction. The gradient of a function is denoted by âˆ’âˆ‡ (without the minus sign in the older literature) and is itself a function of both space and time. The ascendent is the negative of the gradient. In Cartesian coordinates, the expression for the gradient is For expressions in other coordinate systems, see Berry et al. (1945). 2. Often loosely used to denote the magnitude of the gradient or ascendent (i.e., without regard to sign) of a horizontal pressure field. Berry, F. A., E. Bollay, and N. Beers, 1945: Handbook of Meteorology, 224â€“225.