Low temperature poly-crystalline silicon (LTPS). Lasers, or other low temperature energy sources, are used to crystallize amorphous silicon into a more conductive state known as poly-crystalline silicon (p-Si). This poly-crystalline silicon layer is patterned through photolithography to make a thin-film transistor (TFT) backplane. Active matrix liquid crystal displays (LCDs) made with LTPS backplanes are capable of higher resolution and better aperture ratio than LCDs made on amorphous silicon backplanes. Driver integrated circuits (ICs) can also be integrated into the backplane, for better form factor and higher quality. This is especially useful for small displays for mobile devices where smaller panels enable smaller and lightweight end products.