A collection of conceptual tools for describing data, data relationships, data semantics, and consistency constraints.
A conceptual specification of the sets of components and the relationships among the components pertaining to the specific phenomena defined by the model reality. A data model is independent of specific systems or data structures. The S-57 data model defines real world entities as a combination of descriptive and spatial characteristics. These characteristics are defined in terms of feature objects and spatial objects and the relationship between them.
The complete set of data elements which must be taken into account whenever software systems are written. Industry efforts are underway to define a standard data model for retailers.