(3-tier) An application in which the code that implements the business rules, user interface, and data access, are separate and distinct from each other and constitute tiers respectively. The code within each tier may be tightly coupled but is still independent from the other tiers.
can refer either to a minor party, such as the Socialist Party or the Libertarian Party, whose support is so small that it has no significant effect on a national election, or to a party that presents a viable alternative to the Republicans or Democrats. During the late eighteenth and nineteenth century, there were a number of powerful third parties in American politics. The Greenback Party, the Union Labor Party, and the Peoples' Party, for example, forced the major parties to pass significant antimonopoly and labor legislation. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt's Progressive Party split the Republican vote and helped the Democrats win back the White House. In 1996, Ross Perot's Reform Party won 7 percent of the vote in the presidential election. However, in modern times third parties have had no success in breaking the two-party system, and often complain that restrictive ballot access requirements in many states are designed by the major parties to keep them off the ballot.